This course is designed to assist the healthcare worker in understanding domestic violence and the mandates about domestic violence that involve healthcare workers. It concludes with strategies for healthcare workers to use in identifying and managing victims of domestic violence.
After completing this course, the learner will be able to:
Domestic violence amongst family members can take many forms. It may include emotional abuse, economic abuse, sexual abuse, threats, using the threat of removing children, using male privilege, intimidation, isolation, and other behaviors used to maintain fear, intimidation, and power. Acts of domestic violence are categorized into psychological battering, physical battering, or sexual abuse (CDC, 2010). The term domestic violence is still used, but more recently physical, psychological, or sexual violence in the context of a relationship is called intimate partner violence. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines intimate partner violence as “any behavior within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationship” (Rhodes, 2012,
Psychological Battering causes trauma to the victim by acts, or threats of acts, or coercive behavior. Typical behaviors classified as psychological battering include controlling/dominating behavior, deprivation of economic, healthcare and physical resources, destruction of personal property, embarrassment, excessive possessiveness, harassment, humiliation, isolation from family and friends, stalking, and verbal abuse, (CDC, 2010).
Physical Battering involves intentional physical attacks and aggressive behaviors that have the potential to cause harm, harm that ranges from bruising and pain to murder. It often begins with what is excused as trivial contact and escalates into more frequent and serious attacks (CDC, 2010).
Sexual Abuse is typically divided into three categories: 1) sexual activity that is compelled, forced; 2) sexual activity with someone who cannot, or is incapable of giving consent or understanding the sexual situation, and; 3) sexual activity that is abusive, degrading, or humiliating (CDC 2010). Sexual abuse can take place in many types of relationships. Sexual abuse and sexual violence and violence against women commonly occur together in the context of a relationship of an intimate partner relationship (
Battering is a pattern of behavior that uses fear and intimidation to establish power and control over another person. It is an escalating process. It often begins with threats, name-calling[G2] , and damage to objects or pets. It may escalate into restraining, pushing, slapping, or pinching. Next, the behavior may include punching, kicking, biting, sexual assault, tripping, or throwing. Finally, battering may become life-threatening with serious behaviors like choking, breaking bones, or using weapons (CDC, 2010). Abuse tends to happen in cycles; does not just go away; and tends to get worse over time (CDC, 2010).
The annual costs of domestic violence/intimate partner violence have been estimated to be between $2 and 7$ billion a year (Nelson, et al., 2012). According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, domestic violence/intimate partner violence accounts for approximately 17% of all violent crime in the United States (Catalano, 2012). Most victims of domestic violence/intimate partner violence are spouses/significant others, but children and other family members are often victimized as well. The incidence of child physical abuse and child neglect associated with intimate partner violence has been estimated to be between 30%-60% (Lamers-Winkleman, et al., 2012).
Although males are victims, females are the victim in 85% of abuse by a spouse or significant other (Catalano, 2012). The lifetime risk for U.S. women of suffering from intimate partner violence has been estimated to be between 22% - 39% (Nelson, et al., 2012). Elder abuse, child abuse and same-sex abuse are also significant problems.
50% of domestic violence occurs at or near the victim’s home (US Census Bureau, 2009). Simple assault is the most common domestic violence offense, but domestic violence/intimate partner violence can be lethal: approximately 22% of homicides are domestic murders (Wozniak, et al., 2010). There is a strong association between substance abuse and domestic violence/intimate partner violence (Smith, et al., 2012). Smith et al., 2012, found that almost 22% of all perpetrators of intimate partner violence had an alcohol abuse problem. 31.1% of all the perpetrators had a substance abuse problem (alcohol, illicit drugs), and the use of alcohol in conjunction with incidents of intimate partner violence has been estimated to be between 22-60% (Smith, et al., 2012; Taft, et al., 2010).
The traditional image of domestic violence/intimate partner violence has been a man abusing a woman. However, women can be the perpetrators of violence in a relationship. There is controversy about how common women-initiated violence is. The reported incidence of abused men varies widely, but in 2010, Black et al. stated in the WHO reports that 1 in 4 men have been abused by their female partner, and this appears to be confirmed by other studies (Walter, et al., 2012). It is clear from published studies that violence by women in the context of an intimate relationship is relatively common. But the consequences to the victims and the motives of the female perpetrator do appear to be different. The violence perpetrated by women seems to be less frequent, but any particular incident is likely to be more severe. Motives are different, as well. For women, anger over emotional pain, attempts to gain a partner's attention, jealousy, stress, and self-defense appear to be motivators for becoming violent (Liesring, 2012). Violence is also common in lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, and transgender relationships (Goldberg, et al., 2012).
About 22% of murder victims in 2007 were family members. Family members were most likely to kill a young child, while a friend or acquaintance was most likely to murder an older child age 15 to 17. 43% of murder victims were related to or acquainted with their assailants (Durose, et al., 2005). Intimate partners committed 14% of all homicides in the US in 2007, and 64% of all women killed in 2007 were murdered by a family member or an intimate partner (Catalano, et al., 2009).
Intimate partner violence is relatively common. Approximately 15% of employees in the workplace are suffering the effects of intimate partner violence (Katula, 2012). Women lose roughly 8 million days of work a year due to intimate partner violence (Magnusson, et al., 2011), and their emotional and psychological issues and their work absence affect co-workers and the places they work, as well. Intimates (current and former spouses, boyfriends and girlfriends) were identified by the victims as the perpetrators of 1.7% of all workplace violent crime against females and 0.8% of males (US Department of Justice, 2011). About 59% of the female victims of violence in the workplace reported that they knew their offender (US Department of Justice, 2011).
Approximately four out of 10 African American women, American Indian women, and Alaska Native women have experienced physical violence, rape, or stalking in their lifetime by an intimate partner (Black, et al., 2010). Mixed race non-Hispanic women experience these crimes at an incidence of 53.8%. The rate for white women is 34.6%, for Hispanic women 37.1%, and 19.6% for Asian and Pacific Islander women (Black, et al., 2010).
Abuse tends to happen in cycles. It does not just go away and tends to get worse over time. Domestic violence and intimate partner violence typically, but not always, follows a pattern. There is a period of tension building; there is an episode of violence; and there is a time calm, or a "honeymoon" (Hancock, 2012). Unfortunately, there is evidence that suggest the more severe the violence, the more chronic it is and the more likely it is to worsen over time (Lipsky, et al., 2012). ?
1. Tension Building
2. The Battering Incident
3. The Calm Respite of "the Honeymoon."
Then the cycle continues and returns to stage one.
There are many theories as to why some people are abusers. However, the reason abusers use this behavior is that violence is an effective method for gaining and keeping control over another person. In a domestic situation, the abuser traditionally hasn't suffered adverse consequences as a result of violent behavior. Historically, domestic violence in many cultures and societies has not been treated as a "real" crime. This lack of regard to violence is evident in the lack of severe consequences, like incarceration or financial penalties (WHO, 2010). Some cultures support the man’s right and just cause to punish their spouse by beating, in some circumstances (Waltermaurer, 2012; Uthman, et al., 2011; WHO, 2010).
Risk factors for violence against their spouse or significant other are (Farrell, 2011; Theobald, et al., 2012; WHO, 2010):
Numerous studies from both industrialized and developing countries produced a consistent list of events triggering spouse or significant other violence. They are (Dobash, et al, 2011):
Batterers come from all social classes, races, cultures, religions, backgrounds, and countries (WHO, 2010)). The following behaviors may be warning signs (Farrell, 2011; Theobald, et al, 2012):
There have been assessment tools developed that can help identify someone who has the potential for domestic violence/intimate partner violence. The Spousal Abuse Risk Assessment (SARA) is a validated tool that looks for the presence of 20 behaviors such as a history of assault and/or sexual violence, personality disorder, history of the use of weapons, and emotional denial or minimization of violence (Theobald, et al., 2012).
Why do victims stay? All too often that question is answered with a victim-blaming attitude. Victims of abuse often hear that they must like or need abusive treatment, or else they would leave. Sometimes, victims are told that they “love too much" or have low self-esteem. The truth is that no one likes being beaten, regardless of his or her emotional state or self-image. The reasons that a victim stays are many and complex (Kelly, 2011; Panchanadeswaran, et al., 2011; Employee Assistance, 2004).
Millions of children witness intimate partner violence at home (Harding, et al., 2013). The effect of this exposure has been compared to direct physical abuse of the child (Harding, et al., 2013), and these children suffer from a wide range of emotional, physical, and psychological problems listed below (Lamers-Winkleman, et al., 2012; Bauer, et al., 2013; Nicklas, et al., 2013).
Domestic violence/intimate partner violence is also strongly associated with a high incidence of child neglect and maltreatment (Nicklas, et al., 2013). There is also evidence that domestic violence increases the risk of child morbidity and mortality (WHO, 2012).
Staff must be trained to apply the criteria. They should question whether abuse might have occurred if a patient's story for his or her injury does not match the actual injury. For example, a child’s x-rays may show an unexplained broken bone. Staff should observe the behavior of the people who brought the child to the emergency room. Does the child cling to one parent and avoid the other? Staff members should question the child in a non-threatening manner, look for bruises on the body, and listen to explanations to see if there is a balance between the physical evidence and the story.
A hospital must maintain a list of private and public community agencies that provide help for abuse victims. Staff must be able to make appropriate referrals for victims (Burnett, 2011).
New York was the first state that requires hospitals to establish protocols to identify and treat domestic violence victims and make referrals to community services. California passed the first state law mandating protocols for hospitals and clinics to detect the presence of violence in the lives of patients.
California further required domestic violence training a part of the licensing and re-certification process for healthcare providers. Connecticut, Florida, Iowa, and Kentucky also require domestic violence training for re-licensure of physicians (Medscape Education, 2012).
WHO (2010) recommends the following actions:
Early identification and intervention with victims of domestic violence can help prevent injuries and save lives (Nelson, et al., 2012; Decker, et al., 2012). Many victims of domestic violence seek assistance in healthcare settings, often repeatedly, but are only treated for symptoms and injuries. Unfortunately, healthcare professionals often fail to identify victims. Missed cases of intimate partner violence may be due to the screening method: depending on the screening tool that is being used, the rate of detection has been reported to range from 9.2% to 30.5% (Sprague, Madden, Dosanjh, et al., 2012). Missed cases may also be due to healthcare professionals simply not screening (Sprague, Madden, Simonuvic, et al., 2012), and many nurses are not prepared to provide care to a woman who is a victim of violence from her partner (Sundborg, et al., 2012). There are many reasons nurses, physicians, and other healthcare professionals may not screen for intimate partner violence (Beynon, et al., 2012).
Mental healthcare providers see victims of domestic violence for suicide attempts, anxiety, and depression. Practitioners who specialize in chronic pain, such as headaches or stomach disorders, also treat victims of abuse. Pediatricians who see abused children may also see abused women because child abuse and spousal abuse frequently co-exist (Harding, et al., 2013).
Pregnancy may be a risk factor for battering. Approximately 1 in 12 women in North America who are pregnant experience some form of intimate partner violence (Kramer, et al., 2012). Violence during pregnancy increases the incidence of morbidity and mortality. Specifically, victims of violence are more likely to deliver a pre-term or low-birth-weight infant (Kramer, et al., 2012), it affects breastfeeding, and these victimized women are more prone to miscarriage, depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and forgoing prenatal care (Hellmuth, et al., 2013).
Healthcare providers can help by screening for domestic violence, documenting abuse in the medical record, safeguarding evidence, providing medical advice, referrals, and safety planning, and showing empathy and compassion. Victims of domestic violence/intimate partner violence may not discuss the violence unless they are asked directly (Beynon, et al., 2012; Morse, et al., 2012). However, many victims of domestic violence/intimate partner violence will talk about the abuse if they are asked in a direct, caring, and non-judgmental manner (Decker, et al., 2012)
Abuse victims need referrals to legal and social services. They may need help with finding temporary shelter, advice on how to keep safe should they return home, and affirmation that the abuse is not their fault (Burnett, 2011).
Screening questions should always be asked in a private room, away from the batterer and preceded by assurances of strict confidentiality. The spouse or partner should be separated from the patient if they demand to accompany the patient into the examining room (Hancock, 2011).
It is not the role of the healthcare provider to invoke or foster criminal justice intervention. Calling the police is not always in the best interest of a victim of domestic abuse. Some victims of domestic violence have learned to distrust the police or believe that law enforcement intervention will further endanger them. Immigrant victims may fear that calling the police will lead to deportation. Others are unwilling to use law enforcement intervention until a safety plan is in place. Each victim should be informed of their legal options and encouraged to make their own choices (Burnett, 2011; Hancock, 2011). The requirements for reporting incidents of domestic violence/intimate partner violence - what must be reported, how it must be reported and to whom, and who is responsible for the reporting – vary from state to state (Family Violence Prevention Fund, 2010).
Domestic violence is a crime that causes severe health consequences. Healthcare professionals are mandated and morally obligated to identify and offer assistance to victims of domestic violence. Legal and societal changes in the US have reduced the occurrence of Domestic Violence, but the problem is still epidemic. Your efforts can make a difference.
Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence
P.O. Box 4762
Montgomery, AL 36101
Phone: 1-800-650-6522 (in state)
Another State: 1-800-799-SAFE (7233)
Crisis help lines are open 24 hours
Alaska Network on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
130 Seward Street, Room 214
Juneau, AK 99801
Hotline: 1-800-799-SAFE (7233)
Arizona Coalition Against Domestic Violence
301 E. Bethany Home Rd.
Phoenix, AZ 85012
Hours: 8:30am-5-00pm Monday - Friday
Arkansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence
1401 West Capitol Ave, Suite 170
Little Rock AR 72201
Phone: (501) 907-5612
Toll Free: (800)269-4668
Coalition to End Family Violence
1030 N. Ventra Rd
Oxnard, CA 93030
24-Hour Hotline: 805-656-1111
Spanish Hotline: 800-300-2181
Statewide California Coalition for Battered Women
PO Box 19005
Long Beach CA 90807
P.O. Box 503
Durango, CO 81302
Phone: 970-247-9619 (24-hour hotline)
Colorado Coalition Against Domestic Violence
1120 Lincoln Street, Suite 900
Denver, CO 80203
D.C. Coalition Against Domestic Violence
5 Thomas Circle, NW
Washington, DC 20005
Hours: 8:30am-5-00pm Monday - Friday
SOS Program (A part of DC Coalition)
Domestic Violence Intake Center Satellite Office
Greater Southeast Community Hospital
1328 Southern Ave SE
Washington, DC 20032
Phone: 202-561-3095 x12
My Sister's Place
P.O. Box 29596
Washington, DC 20017
Phone: 202-529-5991 (24-hour hotline)
Administrative Office: 202-529-5261
Delaware Coalition Against Domestic Violence
100 W. 10th Street Suite 703
Wilmington, DE 19801
Florida Coalition Against Domestic Violence
425 Office Plaza Dr.
Tallahassee, FL 32301
FL Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-500-1119
FL Domestic Violence Hotline TTY: 1-800-621-4202
Georgia Advocates for Battered Women and Children
250 Georgia Avenue, S.E., Suite 308
Atlanta, GA 30312
Hawaii State Coalition Against Domestic Violence
716 Umi St., Unit 210
Honolulu, HI 96819
24 Hr Hawaii Shelters by Island:
• Hilo: 959-8864
• Kauai: 245-8404
• Kona: 322-SAFE (7233)
• Maui/Lanai: 579-9581
• Molokai: 567-6888
• Oahu: 841-0822
Iowa Coalition Against Domestic Violence
515 28th St
Des Moines, IA 50312
Idaho Coalition Against Sexual and Domestic Violence
300 E. Mallard Dr., Suite 130
Boise, ID 83706
Illinois Coalition Against Domestic Violence
801 South 11th Street
Springfield, Illinois 62703
(Formerly The Friends of Battered Women and Their Children)
P. O. Box 608548
Chicago, IL 60660
P.O. Box 1515
Des Plaines IL 60017
24-Hour Crisis Line: 847-824-4454
Special site on Police Domestic Violence
Indiana Coalition Against Domestic Violence
1915 W. 18th Street, Suite B
Indianapolis, IN 46202
Crisis Line: 1-800-332-7385
Kansas Coalition Against Sexual and Domestic Violence
634 SW Harrison
Topeka, KS 66603
TOLL-FREE: 888-END-ABUSE (Kansas state-wide hotline)
Kentucky Domestic Violence Association
P.O. Box 356
Frankfort, KY 40602
Louisiana Coalition Against Domestic Violence
P.O. Box 77308
Baton Rouge, LA 70879-7308
Maine Coalition to End Domestic Violence
170 Park St.
Bangor, ME 04401
Maryland Network Against Domestic Violence
6911 Laurel Bowie Road, Suite 309
Bowie, MD 20715
Jane Doe Inc./Massachusetts Coalition Against Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence
14 Beacon Street, Suite 507
Boston, MA 02108
Crisis / Information: 989-686-4551
Bay County Women's Center
P.O. Box 1458
3411 E. Midland Rd.
Bay City, MI 48706
Michigan 24-Hour Crisis Line: 517-265-6776
Minnesota Coalition for Battered Women
590 Park Street North, Suite 410
St. Paul, MN 55103
Missouri Coalition Against Domestic Violence
217 Oscar Dr., Suite A
Jefferson City, MO 65101
Women's Support and Community Services
2165 Hampton Ave
St. Louis, MO 63139
Hours: Monday-Thursday 8:00am-7:00pm; Friday 8:00am-1:00pm
Mississippi State Coalition Against Domestic Violence
P.O. Box 4703
Jackson, MS 39296-4703
After Hours HOTLINE: 1-800-799-7233
Hours: Monday-Friday 8:00am-5:00pm
P.O. Box 6644
Great Falls, MT 59406
Montana Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence
Montana Coalition Against Domestic & Sexual Violence
PO Box 818
Helena MT 59624
Nebraska Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Coalition
1000 "O" Street, Suite 102
Lincoln, NE 68508-2253
Nevada Network Against Domestic Violence
220 S. Rock Blvd. Suite. 7
Reno, NV 89502
921 American Pacific Dr. Suite 300,
Henderson, NV 89014
New Hampshire Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence
P.O. Box 353
Concord, NH 03302-0353
TOLL-FREE For Domestic Violence: 866-644-3574
TOLL-FREE For Sexual Assault: 1-800-277-5570
New Jersey Coalition for Battered Women
1670 Whitehorse/Hamilton Square Road
Trenton, NJ 08690
TOLL-FREE: for Battered Lesbians: 800-224-0211 (in NJ only)
TTY: 609-584-0027 (9am-5pm, then into message service)
Strengthen Our Sisters
P.O. Box U
Hewitt, N.J. 07421
HOTLINE: 800-SOS-9470 (800-767-9470)
New Mexico State Coalition Against Domestic Violence
201 Coal Avenue SW
Albuquerque, NM 87102
TOLL-FREE: 800-773-3645 (in New Mexico Only)
Legal Helpline: 800-209-DVLH
New York State Coalition Against Domestic Violence
350 New Scotland Avenue
Albany New York 12208
English TTY: 1-800-818-0656
Spanish TTY: 1-800-780-7660
Email us at email@example.com
North Carolina Coalition Against Domestic Violence
123 W. Main Street, Suite 700
Durham, NC 27701
PO Box 17398
Asheville, NC 28816
North Dakota Council on Abused Women's Services
State Networking Office
418 East Rosser Avenue, Suite 320
Bismarck, ND 58501
TOLL-FREE: 888-255-6240 (In ND Only)
Ohio Domestic Violence Network
4807 Evanswood Drive
Columbus, Ohio 43229
TTY: 614 781-9654
Fax: 614 781-9652
Oklahoma Coalition Against Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
3815 N. Santa Fe Avenue, Suite 124
Oklahoma City, OK 73118
PO Box 135
Poteau, OK 74953
Oregon Coalition Against Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
380 Spokane St.
Portland, OR 97202
Statewide Crisis Number: 1-888-235-5333
Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence/National Resource Center on Domestic Violence
6440 Flank Drive, Suite 1300
Harrisburg, PA 17112-2778
Toll Free: 800-932-4632
Women's Center of Montgomery County
Main Administrative Office:
101 Washington Lane, Ste. WC-1
Jenkintown PA 19046
Toll-free hotline: 1-800-773-2424
Women's Advocacy Project
400 Courthouse Plaza, 18 W. Airy St.
Norristown PA 19404
Women's Advocacy Project
555 High Street, 2nd Floor
Pottstown PA 19464
Bryn Mawr Office:
P.O. Box 764
Norristown, PA 19404
Rhode Island Coalition Against Domestic Violence
422 Post Road, Suite 202
Warwick, RI 02888
South Carolina Coalition Against Domestic Violence & Sexual Assault
P.O. Box 7776
Columbia, SC 29202-7776
South Dakota Coalition Against Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
P.O. Box 141
Pierre, SD 57501
PO Box 1402
Sioux Falls, SD 57101
(605) 271-3171 Phone
(605) 271-3172 Fax
PO Box 41
310 S. Kline St.
Aberdeen, SD 57402-0041
Phone: 605 226-1212
Toll Free: 888-290-2935
Email (general information only): firstname.lastname@example.org
Tennessee Task Force Against Domestic Violence
2 International Plaza Dr., Suite 425
Nashville, TN 37217
Texas Council on Family Violence
P.O. Box 161810
Austin, TX 78716
Families In Crisis, Inc.
P.O. Box 25
Killeen, Texas 76540
Domestic Violence Advisory Council
205 North 400 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84103
Women Helping Battered Women
PO BOX 1535
Women's Rape Crisis Center; Vermont
24 Hour HOTLINE: 802-863-1236
Statewide HOTLINE: 800-489-7273
Vermont Network Against Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
P.O. Box 405
Montpelier, VT 05601
24 Hour HOTLINE: 1 800 228 7395
Virginians Family Violence and Sexual Assault Hotline
302 Hickman Rd
Charlottesville, VA 22911
5008 Monument Ave.
Richmond, VA 23230
Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence
WSCADV- Olympia Office
711 Capitol Way, Suite 702
Olympia, WA 98501
WSCADV - Seattle Office
1402 - 3rd Ave, Suite 406
Seattle WA 98101
206- 389-2900 TTY
Washington State Domestic Violence Hotline
West Virginia Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Elk Office Center
5004 Elk River Road,
Elkview, WV 25071
Manitowoc County Domestic Violence Center
1127 S. 22nd. St,
Manitowoc, WI 54220
Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence
307 S. Paterson St. #1
Madison, WI 53703
Wyoming Coalition Against Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
P.O. Box 236
Laramie, WY 82073
Legal Staff: 307-755-0992
YWCA Battered Women Task Force-Topeka
225 SW 12th St.
Topeka, KS 66612
Evening and Weekend: 785-234-3300
24 Hour HOTLINE: 1-888-822-2983
Hours: Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday: 8:00am-4:30pm; Tuesday 10:30am-4:30pm
Family Violence Prevention Fund
383 Rhode Island Street, Suite 304
San Francisco, CA 94103-5133
Washington, DC Office
1101 14th Street, NW #300
Washington DC 20005
67 Newbury Street, Mezzanine Level
Boston, MA 02116
National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Main Office: 1120
Denver, CO 80203
Phone: 303 839 1852
TTY: (303) 839-8459
Fax: (303) 831-9251
Public Policy Office
1633 Q Street NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20009
Phone: (202) 745-1211
TTY: (202) 745-2042
Fax: (202) 745-0088
National Battered Women's Law Project
275 7th Avenue, Suite 1206
New York, NY 10001
2 Lafayette Street, 3rd Floor
New York, NY 10007
Crime Victims HOTLINE: 800-621-4673
Rape and Sexual Assult & Incest HOTLINE: 212-227-3000
TYY (for all HOTLINES) 866-604-5350
Domestic Violence Shelter Tour
2 Lafayette Street 3rd Floor
New York, NY 10007
24-hour hotline: 800-621-HOPE (4673)
National Resource Center on Domestic Violence
Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence
6400 Flank Drive, Suite 1300
Harrisburg, PA 17112
TOLL FREE: 800-932-4632
National Recourse Center on Domestic Violence
TTY: 888-Rx-ABUSE; 800- 595 -4889
Health Resource Center on Domestic Violence
Family Violence Prevention Fund
383 Rhode Island Street, Suite 304
San Francisco, CA 94103-5133
Battered Women's Justice Project
Minnesota Program Development, Inc
1801 Nicollet Ave, Suite 102
Minneapolis, MN 55403
Phone: 800-903-0111, ext.1
Resource Center on Domestic Violence, Child Protection, and Custody
P.O. Box 8970
Reno, NV 89507
They are only a resource center for professionals and agencies.
Battered Women's Justice Project
c/o National Clearinghouse for the Defense of Battered Women
125 South 9th Street, Suite 302
Philadelphia, PA 19107
TOLL-FREE: 800-903-0111 ext. 3
National Clearinghouse is a national resource and advocacy center providing assistance to women defendants, their defense attorneys, and other members of their defense teams in an effort to insure justice for battered women charged with crimes.
National Clearinghouse on Marital and Date Rape
2325 Oak Street
Berkeley, CA 94708
Faith Trust Institute
(Formerly Center for the Prevention of Sexual and Domestic Violence)
2400 N. 45th Street #10
Seattle, WA 98103
Phone: 206-634-1903, ext. 10
National Network to End Domestic Violence
2001 S Street NW, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20009
HOTLINE: 800-799-SAFE (7233)
Alsaker, K. Morken, T., Baste, V., Campo-Serna, J., Moen, B.E. Sexual assault and other types of violence in intimate partner violence. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavia, 2012, 91(3), 301-307.
Bauer, N.S., Gilbert, A.L., Carroll, A.E., Downs, S.M. Associations with early exposure to intimate partner violence and parental depression with subsequent mental health outcomes. JAMA Pediatrics, 2013, 4, 1-7.
Beynon, C.E., Gutmanis, I.A., Tutty, L.M., Wathen, C.N. Macmillan, H.L. Why physicians and nurses ask (or don’t) about partner violence: a qualitative analysis. BMC Public Health, 2012, Jun 21, 12, 473.
Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith. S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., et al. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010. Summary Report. Atlanta, GA. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 02/15/2013 from The CDC.
Burnett, L.B. Domestic violence management & treatment. eMedicine, Nov 28, 2011. Retrieved 02/16/2013 from Medscape.
Catalano, S.M., Smith, E., Snyder, H., Rand, M. Female victims of Violence. U.S. Department of Justice, 2009. retrieved 02/17/2013 from The Bureau of Justice.
Catalano, S.M. Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010. U.S. Department of Justice, November, 2012. Retrieved 02/172013 from The Bureau of Justice.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Intimate partner violence: Definitions. Retrieved 02/15/2013 from The CDC.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Understanding Intimate Aprtner Violence: Fact Sheet. 2012. Retrieved 02/17/2013 from The CDC.
Decker. M.R., Frattaroli, S., McCaw, B., Coker, A.L., Miller, E., Sharps, P., et al. Transforming the healthcare response to intimate partner violence and taking best practices to scale. Journal of Women’s Health, 2012, 21(12), 1222-1229.
Durose, M.R., Harlow, C.W., Langan, P.A., Motivans, M., Rantala, R.R., Smith, E.L. Family Violence Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice, 2005. Retrieved 02/17/2013 from The Bureau of Justice.
Dobash, R.E., Dobash, R.P. What were they thinking? Men who murder an intimate partner. Violence Against Women, 2011, 17(1), 111-134.
Family Violence Prevention Fund. Compendium of state statutes and policies on domestic policies and healthcare. 2010. Retrieved 02/16/2013 from Futureswithoutviolence.org.
Farrell, H.D. Batterers: A review of violence and risk assessment tools. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law. 2011, 39(4), 562-564.
Feminist Majority Foundation (2007). Domestic Violence Hotlines and Resources. Retrieved 3/29/09 from Feminist.Org.
Goldberg, N.G., Meyer, I.H. Sexual orientation disparities in history of intimate partner violence: Results from the California Health Interview Survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2012, epub ahead of print.
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This course is applicable for the following professions:
Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner (ARNP), Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA), Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), Dietetic Technicians, Registered (DTR), Dietitian/Nutritionalist (RDN), Home Health Aid (HHA), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVN), Midwife (MW), Physical Therapist (PT/PTA), Registered Nurse (RN), Respiratory Therapist (RT)
CPD: Practice Effectively, CPD: Preserve Safety, Domestic Violence, Florida Requirements, Kentucky Requirements