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Child Abuse

2 Contact Hours
This course is applicable for the following professions:
Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner (ARNP), Athletic Trainer (AT/AL), Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA), Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), Home Health Aid (HHA), Licensed Nursing Assistant (LNA), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVN), Medical Assistant (MA), Midwife (MW), Nursing Student, Occupational Therapist (OT), Occupational Therapist Assistant (OTA), Physical Therapist (PT), Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA), Registered Nurse (RN), Respiratory Therapist (RT)
This course will be updated or discontinued on or before Wednesday, June 3, 2020

AOTA Classification Code: CAT 1: Context and Environment; CAT 2: OT Outcomes
Education Level: Intermediate
AOTA does not endorse specific course content, products, or clinical procedures. AOTA provider number 9575.

FPTA Approval:CE20-536793. Accreditation of this course does not necessarily imply the FPTA supports the views of the presenter or the sponsors.
Course Description
Child abuse is a sad reality that occurs in our society and health professionals often come across young victims. This course will teach healthcare professionals how to spot the signs of child abuse and learn how to respond. Those who complete this course will gain understanding of how child abuse impacts children, and what the healthcare provider’s role is in reporting abuse.
CEUFast Inc. did not endorse any product, or receive any commercial support or sponsorship for this course. The Planning Committee and Authors do not have any conflict of interest.

Last Updated:
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To earn of certificate of completion you have one of two options:
  1. Take test and pass with a score of at least 80%
  2. Reflect on practice impact by completing self-reflection, self-assessment and course evaluation.
    (NOTE: Some approval agencies and organizations require you to take a test and self reflection is NOT an option.)
Author:    Julia Tortorice (RN, MBA, MSN, NEA-BC, CPHQ)


The purpose of this course is to prepare healthcare professionals to identify and respond to child abuse.


After completing this course, the learner will be able to meet the following objectives:

  1. Identify physical and behavioral indicators associated with child abuse and maltreatment/neglect,
  2. Discuss the impact of abuse on children,
  3. Respond appropriately to reasonable cause to suspect abuse or maltreatment, and
  4. Identify resources for reporting child abuse.

Violence is an important public health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that nearly 53,000 children are murdered each year and the prevalence of forced sexual intercourse and other forms of sexual violence involving touch, among boys and girls under 18, is 73 million and 150 million respectively (WHO, 2016).

For 2014, there were a nationally estimated 702,000 victims of abuse and neglect, resulting in a rate of 9.4 victims per 1,000 children in the population. The youngest children are the most vulnerable to maltreatment. In FFY 2014, 52 states reported that more than one-quarter (27.4%) of victims were younger than 3 years. (DHHS, 2014, pg. 21).

The percentages (not shown) of child victims were similar for both boys (48.9) and girls (50.7). African-American children had the highest rate of victimization at 15.3 per 1,000 children in the population of the same race or ethnicity and American Indian or Alaska Native children had the second highest rate at 13.4 per 1,000 children. Hispanic and White children had lower rates of victimization at 8.8 and 8.4 per 1,000 children in the population of the same race or ethnicity (DHHS, 2014, pg. 23).

For FFY 2014, a nationally estimated 1,580 children died from abuse and neglect at a rate of 2.13 per 100,000 children in the population (DHHS, 2014, pg. 51).

Studies conclude that professionals that have contact with children report only half of the incidents that may be abuse or maltreatment/neglect (Research foundation, 2011).  The reason for this low report rate was confusion or misunderstanding about the laws and procedures and a lack of knowledge or awareness of warning signs. The study also found the professionals are often influenced by their professional beliefs values and past experiences (Research foundation, 2011).

Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect within the civil and criminal context. Civil laws, or statutes, describe the circumstances and conditions that obligate mandated reporters to report known or suspected cases of abuse. They also provide definitions necessary for juvenile/family courts to take custody of a child alleged to have been maltreated. Criminal statutes define the forms of maltreatment that are criminally punishable (NCANDS, 2011). All states require healthcare personnel, school personnel, daycare providers and law enforcement personnel to report child abuse. Failure to do so is a crime.

Child abuse and neglect are, at a minimum:

  • Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation.
  • An act or failure to act that presents an imminent risk of serious harm.


Indicators of abuse warn the healthcare professional to pay more attention to a particular situation. Sometimes there are no indicators even though the child is being abused. There are three types of indicators of abuse or maltreatment/neglect; 1) physical indicators, 2) child behavioral indicators, and 3) parent behavioral indicators.

Indicators should not be viewed in isolation they must be considered in relationship to the child’s condition. Indicators should be considered in the overall context of the child’s physical appearance and behavior. Sometimes a single indicator is self-evident or points to abuse or maltreatment/neglect. Often, several indicators must be pulled together or clusters of indicators used to develop reasonable cause (Research foundation, 2011).

Some healthcare professionals see a child only once, or very infrequently; others see them more often. In looking for reasonable cause, you need to consider what you know about the child’s normal behavior. No two children will respond the same way to the 

Physical Indicators

Common physical indicators are severe unexplained or suspicious bruises and welts, fractures, burns, lacerations, or abrasions. Specific physical indicators are (Research foundation, 2011, participant's guide pg. 6; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Unexplained bruises and welts
    1. On face, lips, mouth, torso, back, buttocks or thighs.

Handprint Injury

Handprint Injury
(, 2012)

Bruising of torso, buttocks and thighs

(, 2012)

  1. Bruising of torso, buttocks, and thighs
  2. Bruises in various stages of healing clustered bruises forming regular patterns that might reflect the shape of an article used to inflict the injury
  3. Bruises on several different areas
  4. Bruises regularly appear after absence, weekend, or vacation
  1. Unexplained fractures
    1. To nose, skull, or facial structure
    2. In various stages of healing
    3. Multiple or Spiral fractures

Spiral Fracture

Spiral Fracture
(, 2012)

  1. Swollen or tender lambs
  1. Unexplained burns
    1. Cigar, cigarette burns especially on the soles of feet, palms, back and buttocks

Cigarette burn

Cigarette burn
(, 2012)

  1. Immersion burns: sock like, glove like, doughnut shaped on buttocks or genitalia

Glove like burn

Glove like burn
(, 2012)

Sock like burn

Sock like burn, 2012)

  1. Patterned like electric burner or iron

Steam Iron Injury
(, 2012)

  1. Rope burns on arms, legs, neck, or torso

Steam Iron Injury

Looped cord injury (, 2012)

  1. Unexplained lacerations or abrasions
    1. To mouth, lips, gums, or eyes
    2. To external genitalia
    3. On back of arms, legs, or torso
    4. Human bite marks
    5. Frequent injuries that are accidental or unexplained

Accidental injuries usually involve injury on a bony prominence of the body such as elbows and knees and shins. Suspicious injuries usually occur in areas not susceptible to accidental age-appropriate areas. The following pictures indicate areas where children would normally bruises, and suspicious bruising areas, as well as other suspicious areas of injury.

Bruising Areas
(, 2012)

Suspicious areas of bruising
(, 2012)


Clues to the mechanism of injury
(, 2012)

Consider the size and shape of the injury, as well as the location of injury (Research foundation, 2011). Consider the relationship of the mechanism of injury (explanation of how injury occurred) to the child's developmental stage. For example toddlers fall when they learn to walk and young children scrape their knees when learning to ride a bicycle. Consider if the story that was given as an explanation for an injury would produce the physical indicators that are present. For instance a toddler falls to the floor while walking, not striking anything when he fell. That toddler has bruises on the back of his legs. One would expect that from a fall, while walking, the toddler would have bruises and scrapes on his hands, knees, and shins; not bruises on the back of his legs.

Child behavioral indicators of physical abuse may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant's guide pg. 6; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. the child is wary of adult contact,
  2. apprehensive when other children cry,
  3. demonstrates behavioral extremes,
  4. frightened of parents,
  5. afraid to go home,
  6. reports injury by parent,
  7. wears long sleeve or similar clothing to hide injuries,
  8. Seeks affection from adults.

Parent behavioral indicators of physical abuse may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant's guide pg. 6; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. seemed unconcerned about the child
  2. takes an usual amount of time to obtain medical care for the child
  3. offers inadequate or inappropriate explanations for the injury
  4. gives different explanations for the same injury
  5. misuses drugs or alcohol
  6. disciplines the child to harshly considering the child's age or what she has done wrong
  7. sees the child as bad or evil
  8. has a history of abuse as a child
  9. attempts to conceal the child's injury
  10. takes a child to a different hospital or doctor for each injury
  11. has poor impulse control


Child physical indicators of maltreatment/neglect may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant’s guide pg. 7; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Consistent hunger, poor hygiene, inappropriate dress
  2. Consistent lack of supervision, especially in dangerous activities or for long periods
  3. Unattended physical problems or medical or dental needs
  4. Abandonment

Child behavioral indicators of maltreatment/neglect may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant’s guide pg. 7; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Begging or stealing food
  2. Extended stays in school – arrives early, leaves late
  3. Attendance at school infrequent
  4. Consistent fatigue, falls asleep in class
  5. Alcohol and drug abuse
  6. States there is no caretaker

Parental behavior indicators of maltreatment/neglect may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant’s guide pg. 7; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Misuses alcohol or other drugs
  2. Has disorganized, upsetting home life
  3. Is apathetic, feeling nothing will change
  4. Is isolated from friends, relatives, neighbors
  5. Has long term chronic illness
  6. Cannot be found
  7. Has history of neglect as a child
  8. Exposes child to unsafe living conditions
  9. Evidence limited intellectual capacity

Emotional Maltreatment

Child physical indicators of emotional maltreatment may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant’s guide pg. 7; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Conduct disorders such as fighting in school, antisocial, or destructive.  
  2. Habit disorders such as rocking, fighting, or sucking fingers   
  3. Neurotic disorders such as speech disorders, sleep problems, or inhibition of play   
  4. Psychoneurotic reactions such as phobias, hysterical reactions, compulsions, or hypochondria   
  5. Lags in physical development
  6. Failure to thrive

failure to thrive

(, 2012)

Child behavioral indicators of emotional maltreatment may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant’s guide pg. 7; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Overly adaptive behavior such as inappropriately adult or inappropriately infantile
  2. Developmental delays, mental or emotional   
  3. Extremes of behavior such as compliant, passive, aggressive, or demanding   
  4. Suicide attempt or gestures or self-mutilation

Parent behavioral indicators of emotional maltreatment may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant’s guide pg. 7; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Treats children in the family unequally   
  2. Doesn’t seem to care much about child’s problem
  3. Blames or belittles child   
  4. Is cold and rejecting   
  5. Inconsistent behavior toward child

Sexual Abuse

Child physical indicators of sexual abuse may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant’s guide pg. 8; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Difficulty in walking or sitting
  2. Torn, sustained, or bloody underclothing,
  3. Pain or itching in genitalia.
  4. Pregnancy, especially in early adolescence
  5. Bruises or bleeding in external genitalia, vaginal or anal areas
  6. Sexually transmitted diseases especially in pre-adolescent age group, includes venereal oral infections

Child behavioral indicators of sexual abuse may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant’s guide pg. 8; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Unwilling to change for or participate in physical education class
  2. Withdrawal, fantasy, or infantile behavior
  3. Bizarre, sophisticated, unusual sexual behavior or knowledge
  4. Self-injurious behaviors, suicide attempts
  5. Poor peer relationships
  6. Aggressive or disruptive behavior, delinquency, running away, or school truancy
  7. Reports sexual assault by caretakers
  8. Exaggerated fear of closeness or physical contact

Parent behavioral indicators of sexual abuse may be (Research foundation, 2011, participant’s guide pg. 8; NYOFS, 2016):

  1. Very protective or jealous of child
  2. Encourages child to engage in prostitution or sexual acts in the presence of caretaker
  3. Misuses alcohol or drugs
  4. Is geographically isolated and/or lacking in social and emotional contacts outside the family
  5. Has low self-esteem

Reporting Suspected Child Abuse

Each State has specific agencies to receive and investigate reports of suspected child abuse and neglect. Usually, this is done by child protective services (CPS), within a Department of Social Services, Department of Human Resources, or Division of Family and Children Services. A list of that contact information is at the end of this course.

In some States, police departments also may receive reports of child abuse or neglect. If you don’t know whom to call, you can call Childhelp USA, National Child Abuse Hotline at 1-800-4-A-CHILD (1-800-422-4453; TDD 1-800-2-A-CHILD). This Hotline is available 24 hours, 7 days a week. They can tell you where to file your report and can help you make the report. State Toll-Free Child Abuse

Child abuse victims come into frequent contact with health professionals, but often only injuries are treated. Because there is a lack of training on what to look for and how to ask about abuse, health professionals often fail to identify victims. Opportunities for intervention are missed and victims continue to suffer the adverse health consequences of physical and emotional abuse

Healthcare professionals are often the first to observe abuse and neglect, and their observations are often crucial in substantiating that abuse has occurred. They can help by:

  • Reporting suspected cases of child abuse to Children’s Protective Services
  • Documenting abuse in the medical record
  • Safeguarding evidence
  • Providing medical advice, referrals, and safety planning
  • Showing empathy and compassion
  • Identifying the somatic signs and symptoms of abuse
  • Evaluating the plausibility of explanations given for common injuries and conditions
  • Providing expert testimony
  • Assessing cognitive status and health factors that affect it
  • Treating injuries or health problems that result from abuse
  • Performing abuse screenings
  • Encouraging clinics, hospitals, health maintenance organizations, or other medical providers to develop or adopt protocols for screening and responding to abuse
  • Provide referrals to legal and social services
  • Learning more about child abuse

Talking with Children

The role of the healthcare professional is to assess for reasonable cause to suspect maltreatment/neglect or abuse. The healthcare professional is not to investigate or interrogate. The healthcare professional identifies reasonable cause and leaves the investigation and interrogation to specially trained workers in child protective services or law enforcement.

When talking with children to establish reasonable cause to suspect abuse or maltreatment/neglect, find a private place and remain calm. Be honest, open, and up front with the child. Be supportive. Listen to the child and stress that it’s not the child’s fault. Do not overreact, make judgments, make promises, nor interrogate or investigate. 

What Is Reasonable Cause to Suspect Abuse or Maltreatment

Reasonable cause to be suspicious based on what you have observed or been told, combined with your training and experience, you feel that harm or imminent danger of harm to the child could be the result of an act or omission by the person legally responsible for the child. If there is reasonable cause to suspect the child is being abused or maltreated (NYOFS, 2016).

Crimes committed against the child should be reported directly to law enforcement. If the child is in imminent danger, contact law enforcement immediately. Imminent danger is when the child is placed at immediate risk or a substantial risk of harm (NYOFS, 2016).

Case Studies

A. A female, age 15, has comes to the ER with the rash on her vaginal area. She discloses she has been engaging in sexual intercourse with her mother’s 38-year-old boyfriend for the past two months. The boyfriend has resided in the house with the child and her mother for the past five years and is responsible for the care of the child when the mother is at work (Research foundation, 2011, Participant Guide, Medical pg. 15).

  • What indicators are present?
  • Is there a reasonable cost to suspect abuse or maltreatment?
  • What are your next steps?

B. Seven-year-old Chris came to the doctor’s office for a physical. He has a bruise on the right side of his face with scrapes along his right arm. The child claimed he fell off his bike. The child lives with his mother, a single parent. She says Chris is a very active child and at times can present challenging behaviors at school (Research foundation, 2011, Participant Guide, Medical pg. 16).

  • What indicators are present?
  • Is there a reasonable cost to suspect abuse or maltreatment?
  • What are your next steps?

C. A mother delivers a baby that has neonatal drug withdrawal. When talking to the mother, you learned she has not prepared for baby to come home (Research foundation, 2011, Participant Guide, Medical pg. 17). 

  • What indicators are present?
  • Is there a reasonable cost to suspect abuse or maltreatment?
  • What are your next steps?

D. Eight-year-old Jason comes to the ER with a broken arm. His mother says he fell off the bed. When Jason Jason’s arm is x-rayed there’s a spiral fracture to his humorous (Research foundation, 2011, Participant Guide, Medical pg. 18).

  • What indicators are present?
  • Is there a reasonable cost to suspect abuse or maltreatment?
  • What are your next steps?

Case Study Answers

Case Study A

  • What indicators are present? Sexual abuse and verbal disclosure
  • Is there reasonable cause to suspect abuse or maltreatment? Yes
  • What are your next steps? Report abuse, maltreatment, or neglect

Case Study B

  • What indicators are present? Bruises, scrapes
  • Is there reasonable cause to suspect abuse or maltreatment? No, the story is consistent with a bike injury. Injuries sustained in an accidental fall would be along one side of the child’s body.
  • What are your next steps? Treat child’s injury.

Case Study C

  • What indicators are present? Neonatal drug withdrawal and no plan for the baby
  • Is there reasonable cause to suspect abuse or maltreatment? Yes
  • What are your next steps? Report abuse, maltreatment, or neglect

Case Study D

  • What indicators are present? Spiral fracture, explanation is not plausible
  • Is there reasonable cause to suspect abuse or maltreatment? Yes
  • What are your next steps? Report abuse, maltreatment, or neglect

Child Abuse Reporting Contact Information

Reporting Numbers Resource List is from Child Welfare Information Gateway (2016): Information Updated as of Thursday, May 26, 2016 unless otherwise noted.

Alabama Department of Human Resources

50 North Ripley Street

Montgomery, Alabama 36130

Phone: (334) 242-1325



Alaska Department of Health and Social Services

130 Seward Street

Suite 400

Juneau, Alaska 99811

Phone: (907) 465-3548



Alaska Office of the Ombudsman

PO Box 102636

Anchorage, Alaska 99510-2636

Phone: (907) 269-5290

Fax: (907) 269-5291


Arizona Ombudsman-Citizens' Aide

3737 N. 7th Street

Suite 209

Phoenix, Arizona 85014

Phone: (602) 277-7292

Toll-Free: (800) 872-2879

Fax: (602) 277-7312



Arizona Department of Economic Security

CPS Family Advocate

Phone: (602) 364-0777

Toll-Free: (877) 527-0765


Arkansas Department of Human Services

Client Advocate

Donaghey Plaza, PO Box 1437

Little Rock, Arkansas 72203

Phone: (501) 683-2735


California Department of Social Services

744 P Street, M/S 3-90

Sacramento, California 95814

Phone: (916) 651-8100


California Ombudsman for Foster Care

744 P Street, MS 8-13-25

Sacramento, California 95814

Toll-Free: (877) 846-1602



Colorado Department of Human Services

1575 Sherman Street

Denver, Colorado 80203

Phone: (303) 866-4511

Fax: (303) 866-5563



Office of the Child Protection Ombudsman

Phone: (303) 864-5111


Connecticut Department of Children & Families

Ombudsman Office

505 Hudson Street

Hartford, Connecticut 06106

Phone: (860) 550-6301

Toll-Free: (866) 637-4737

Fax: (860) 560-7086


District of Columbia Child and Family Services Agency Youth Ombudsman

200 I Street, SE

Washington, District of Columbia 20003

Phone: (202) 442-6100

Fax: (202) 727-6505



Florida Department of Children and Families

County Client Relations’ Coordinators

Phone: (850) 487-1111


Georgia's Office of Child Advocate

270 Washington Street S.W.

8th Floor, Suite 8101

Atlanta, Georgia 30334

Phone: (404) 656-4200

Fax: (404) 656-5200



Hawaii Office of the Ombudsman

465 South King Street, 4th Floor

Honolulu, Hawaii 96813

Phone: (808) 587-0770

Fax: (808) 587-0773


Illinois Advocacy Office for Children and Families

406 East Monroe Street

Springfield, Illinois 62701

Phone: (217) 524-2029

Toll-Free: (800) 232-3798

TTY: (800) 513-4980


Indiana Department of Child Services (DCS) Ombudsman Bureau

402 W. Washington, W479

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204

Phone: (317) 234-7295



Iowa Office of Citizens' Aide Ombudsman

Ola Babcock Miller Building

1112 East Grand

Des Moines, Iowa 50319

Phone: (515) 281-3592

Toll-Free: (888) 426-6283


Kansas Department of Children and Families - Foster Parent and Youth Ombudsman

Toll-Free: (844) 279-2306



Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services

Office of the Ombudsman

275 East Main Street, 1E-B

Frankfort, Kentucky 40621

Phone: (502) 564-5497

Toll-Free: (800) 372-2973



Louisiana Department of Children & Family Services

627 North Fourth Street

Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70802

Phone: (225) 342-2297

Fax: (225) 342-2268


Maine Ombudsman Program

Maine Child Wel­fare Ser­vices Ombuds­man

Phone: (207) 213-4773

Toll-Free: (866) 621-0758



Maryland Department of Human Resources

State Constituent Services

311 West Saratoga Street

Baltimore, Maryland 21201-3521

Toll-Free: (800) 332-6347



Massachusetts Department of Children and Families Ombudsman

24 Farnsworth Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02210

Phone: (617) 748-2444


Michigan Office of Children’s Ombudsman

P.O. Box 30026

Lansing, Michigan 48909

Phone: (517) 373-3077

Toll-Free: (800) 642-4326

Fax: (517) 335-4471



Minnesota - The Office of the Ombudsperson for Families

1450 Energy Drive

Suite 106

St. Paul, Minnesota 55108

Phone: (651) 603-0058

Toll-Free: 1-888-234-4939

Fax: (651) 643-2539


Mississippi Department of Human Services

Office of Consumer Services

750 North State Street

Jackson, Mississippi 39202

Phone: (601) 359-4414

Toll-Free: (800) 345-6347



Missouri Office of Child Advocate

PO Box 809

Jefferson City, Missouri 65102

Toll-Free: (866) 457-2302

Fax: (573) 522-6870



Montana Child and Family Ombudsman

Helena, Montana 59604

Toll-Free: (844) 252-4453



Nebraska Public Counsel (Ombudsman's Office)

Public Counsel (Ombudsman's Office)

PO Box 94604

Room 807, State Capitol

Lincoln, Nebraska 68509-4604

Phone: (402) 471-2035

Toll-Free: (800) 742-7690



Nevada Division of Child and Family Services

Systems Advocate

4126 Technology Way, 3rd Floor

Carson City, Nevada 89706

Phone: (775) 684-4453



New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services

Office of the Ombudsman

129 Pleasant Street

Concord, New Hampshire 03301-3857

Phone: (603) 271-6941

Toll-Free: (800) 852-3345

Fax: (603) 271-4632


New Jersey Department of Children and Families

Office of Advocacy

222 South Warren Street

PO Box 729, 3rd Floor

Trenton, New Jersey 08625-0729

Toll-Free: (877) 543-7864



New Mexico Children, Youth & Families

PO Drawer 5160

P.E.R.A. Room 254

Santa Fe, New Mexico 87502

Phone: (505) 827-7606

Fax: (505) 827-4053



New York State Office of Children and Families

New York City Only

Office of Advocacy/ACS Parents' and Children's Rights Unit

150 William Street - 18th Floor

New York, New York 10038

Phone: (212) 676-9421


North Dakota Department of Human Services

Appeals Supervisor, Legal Advisory Unit

600 E Boulevard Avenue, Dept. 325

Bismarck, North Dakota 58505-0250

Phone: (701) 328-2311

Toll-Free: (800) 472-2622



Ohio Department of Job and Family Services

Office of Constituent Affairs

30 East Broad Street

32nd Floor

Columbus, Ohio 43215-0423

Phone: (614) 466-9280



Oklahoma Department of Human Services

Office of Client Advocacy

PO Box 25352

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73125-0352

Phone: (405) 525-4850

Fax: (405) 525-4855


Oregon Governor's Advocacy/Ombudsman Office

500 Summer St, NE

4th Floor GAO

Salem, Oregon 97301

Phone: (503) 945-6904

Toll-Free: (800) 442-5238



Oregon Foster Care Ombudsman

500 Summer St. NE E-17

Salem, Oregon 97301

Fax: (855) 840-6036



Pennsylvania Department of Human Services

Rhode Island Office of the Child Advocate

Louis Pastor Building 4th Floor

57 Howard Avenue

Cranston, Rhode Island 02920

Phone: (401) 462-4300

Fax: (401) 462-4305


South Carolina State Office of Children's Affairs

Office of Children's Affairs

1200 Senate Street, Suite 104

Columbia, South Carolina 29201

Phone: (803) 734-5049

Fax: (803) 734-0799


South Dakota Department of Social Services

Constituent Liaison

700 Governor's Drive

Pierre, South Dakota 57501

Toll-Free: (800) 597-1603



Tennessee Commission on Children and Youth

Andrew Johnson Tower, 9th Floor

710 James Robertson Parkway

Nashville, Tennessee 37243-0800

Phone: (615) 532-1572

Toll-Free: (800) 264-0904

Fax: (615) 532-1591


Texas Department of Family and Protective Services

Office of Consumer Affairs

PO Box 149030

Austin, Texas 78714-9030

Toll-Free: (800) 720-7777

Fax: (512) 339-5892



Texas Health and Human Services Commission

Office of the Ombudsman

PO Box 13247 -- MC H-700

Austin, Texas 78711-3247

Toll-Free: (877) 787-8999

TDD: (888) 425-6889

Fax: (888) 780-8099


Utah Department of Human Services

Office of Child Protection Ombudsman

120 North 120 200 West

Room 422 - PO Box 45500

Salt Lake City, Utah 84145-0500

Phone: (801) 538-4589

Toll-Free: (800) 868-6413

Fax: (801) 538-3942


Vermont Department for Children and Families

Consumer Concerns Team

103 South Main Street - 2nd Floor, 5 North

Waterbury, Vermont 05671-5920

Phone: (802) 871-3385


Virginia Department of Social Services

801 East Main Street

Richmond, Virginia 23219-3301

Phone: (804) 726-7011

Fax: (804) 726-7015



Washington State Office of the Family & Children's Ombuds

6720 Fort Dent Way, Suite 240

Mail Stop TT-99

Tukwila, Washington 98188

Phone: (206) 439-3870

Toll-Free: (800) 571-7321

Fax: (206) 439-3877


West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources

Office of Client Services

350 Capital Street - Room 513

Charleston, West Virginia 25301

Toll-Free: (800) 642-8589


Wisconsin Department of Children and Families

201 East Washington Avenue, Second Floor

PO Box 8916

Madison, Wisconsin 53708-8916

Phone: (608) 267-3905

Fax: (608) 266-6836



Wyoming Department of Family Services

Complaint Resolution/Ombudsman

Hathaway Building - 2300 Capitol Avenue, 3rd Floor

Cheyenne, Wyoming 82002

Phone: (307) 777-6031

Toll-Free: (800) 457-3659

Fax: (307) 777-7747


Select one of the following methods to complete this course.

Take TestPass an exam testing your knowledge of the course material.
Reflect on Practice ImpactDescribe how this course will impact your practice.   (No Test)

References (2012) Prevention Resources for the Community and Professionals Retrieved May 5, 2013 (Visit Source).

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