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Bipolar Disorder

2 Contact Hours including 2 Advanced Pharmacology Hours
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This peer reviewed course is applicable for the following professions:
Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), Certified Nurse Practitioner, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVN), Nursing Student, Registered Nurse (RN), Registered Nurse Practitioner
This course will be updated or discontinued on or before Wednesday, May 1, 2024

Nationally Accredited

CEUFast, Inc. is accredited as a provider of nursing continuing professional development by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ANCC Provider number #P0274.


The purpose of this activity is to enable the learner to understand how to assess, diagnose, and treat bipolar disorders using evidence-based practice. This course reflects the latest diagnostic criteria from the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Editions (DSM-5).


Describe the etiology and pathogenesis of bipolar disorders including the role of genetics, biochemistry, and psychodynamics.

  1. Describe the etiology and pathogenesis of bipolar disorders, including the role of genetics, biochemistry, and psychodynamics.
  2. Recognize the four main changes that the American Psychiatric Association made to bipolar disorders in the DSM-5.
  3. Differentiate the diagnostic criteria of manic episodes, hypomanic episodes, and major depressive episodes.
  4. Understand the diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, gender, culture-related issues, and differential diagnosis for bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder.
  5. Discuss the prevalence of suicide in bipolar disorder and learn to recognize risk factors for suicide.
  6. Understand the proper pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment for each type of mood disturbance seen in bipolar disorders.
CEUFast Inc. and the course planners for this educational activity do not have any relevant financial relationship(s) to disclose with ineligible companies whose primary business is producing, marketing, selling, re-selling, or distributing healthcare products used by or on patients.

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To earn of certificate of completion you have one of two options:
  1. Take test and pass with a score of at least 80%
  2. Reflect on practice impact by completing self-reflection, self-assessment and course evaluation.
    (NOTE: Some approval agencies and organizations require you to take a test and self reflection is NOT an option.)
Author:    Melissa DeCapua (DNP, PMHNP-BC)


Bipolar disorders are classified by their extremes in mood (Black & Anderson, 2016). Historically, they were referred to as bipolar affective disorders or manic-depression. They consist of excessive swings in the mood, very different from daily life's normal ups and downs. The shifts in mood, energy, and the ability to function in life that spring from bipolar disease can manifest in several forms ranging from periods of hyper-energy to intervals of deeply morbid depression (Black & Anderson, 2016). There are seven types of bipolar disorders classified in the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition (DSM-5) (APA, 2013):

  • Bipolar I disorder
  • Bipolar II disorder
  • Cyclothymic disorder
  • Bipolar disorder due to other medical conditions
  • Substance/medication-induced bipolar disorder
  • Other specified bipolar disorder
  • Unspecified bipolar disorder

Often the presence of bipolar disorder goes unrecognized and untreated (Black & Anderson, 2016). When diagnosed, treatment for bipolar disorder differs from that conventionally used for unipolar depression (Gabbard, 2014). The ability of health professionals to recognize signs of bipolar mood disturbances is an important skill, as is the understanding of current treatment and management of this potentially life-altering disorder.


Bipolar disorders are lifelong diseases (Sadock et al., 2015). The onset of significant symptoms may occur at any age from early childhood to late in the 50s and even beyond (Sadock et al., 2015). For many, the age range between 15 and 24 seems to be when significant, disruptive swings in mood and functioning manifest clearly (Sadock et al., 2015).

Genetics is a factor in bipolar disorder, with first-degree relatives seven times more likely to experience bipolar symptoms than a person chosen from the population at random (Malectic & Raison, 2014). However, no direct "bipolar gene" has been identified. Neither race nor sex plays favorites in bipolar disorder as prevalence is distributed equally. However, certain subtypes of bipolar tend to be slightly more common in one sex or the other (APA, 2013).

Biochemistry changes in the brain accompany bipolar disorder. Several neurotransmitter systems show alteration in bipolar brain disease, making it difficult to determine what is going on exactly. Glutamate increases in the brain appear consistent in both bipolar and major depression, while poor regulation of serotonin has been associated with mania (Malectic & Raison, 2014). Hormonal imbalances, along with disruptions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis involved in homeostasis and the stress response, have also been implicated as biochemical contributors to the clinical picture of bipolar disorder (Malectic & Raison, 2014).

Psychodynamic factors that influence cognitive processing also play roles in bipolar disorder (Sharf, 2015). The efforts of the brain to cope with difficult to reconcile feelings of loss or acute and chronic stresses are all implicated as contributors to bipolar disorder (Sharf, 2015).

Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM 5

In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the DSM-5, an update of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2000). The APA made four major changes to bipolar disorders to enhance the accuracy and specificity of their diagnosis in the clinical setting (APA, 2013).

First, the criteria for manic and hypomanic mood episodes now emphasize a change in activity and energy in addition to changes in mood. Second, the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, mixed episode, has been removed and replaced with the diagnostic specifier, "with mixed features." Third, the APA added a new diagnosis called other specified bipolar disorder, which encompasses patients who meet all the symptomatic criteria but do not meet the duration criterion. Lastly, a new specifier called "with anxious distress" was added to classify patients with prominent anxiety symptoms (APA, 2013).

Mood Episodes

To fully understand a bipolar disorder diagnosis, nurses and nurse practitioners must learn to differentiate mood episodes. Mood refers to a sustained emotion that paints how a person interprets their life (Morrison, 2014). Nearly 20% of women and 10% of men experience a mood disturbance at some point in their lives (Morrison, 2014).

The DSM-5 outlines three different types of bipolar mood episodes (APA, 2013):

  1. manic
  2. hypomanic
  3. major depressive episodes

While both manic and major depressive episodes must present with severe symptoms to impair the patient's social and occupational functioning, a hypomanic episode does not. Before diagnosing any mood disturbance, the physiological effects of a substance or medical condition must be ruled out.

Manic Episode

Mania is a period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that is often associated with goal-directed activity or energy. During periods of mania, patients might find themselves involved in uncontrollable shopping sprees, unsafe sexual encounters with many partners, or foolish business investments (Morrison, 2014). Patients often report feeling rested after only three hours of sleep and may present with pressured speech (Sadock et al., 2015). The mood disturbances caused by a manic episode must be considered sufficiently severe, leading to marked impairment in either social or occupational function (Morrison, 2014).

The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for a manic episode are as follows (APA, 2013):

  • A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased goal-directed activity or energy, lasting at least one week and present most of the day, nearly every day (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).
  • During the period of mood disturbance and increased energy or activity, three (or more) of the following symptoms (four if the mood is only irritable) are present to a significant degree and represent a noticeable change from usual behavior:
    • Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
    • Decreased need for sleep
    • More talkative than usual or pressured to keep talking
    • Flights of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing
    • Distractibility
    • Increase in goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitation
    • Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences

Hypomanic Episode

Hypomanic episodes consist of the same symptoms as manic episodes, except they are shorter and do not include psychosis (Morrison, 2014). The mood disturbances caused by a hypomanic episode must not be severe enough to impair the patient's social or occupational functioning (Morrison, 2014).

The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for a hypomanic episode is as follows (APA, 2013):

  • A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased goal-directed activity or energy, lasting at least four days and present most of the day, nearly every day
  • During the period of mood disturbance and increased energy or activity, three (or more) of the following symptoms (four if the mood is only irritable) are present to a significant degree and represent a noticeable change from usual behavior:
    • Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
    • Decreased need for sleep
    • More talkative than usual or pressured to keep talking
    • Flights of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing
    • Distractibility
    • Increase in goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitation
    • Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences
  • The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is uncharacteristic when not symptomatic.
  • The disturbance in mood and the change in functioning are observable by others.

Major Depressive Episode

The presenting symptoms of a depressive episode vary widely from patient to patient. Some patients may appear slowed down and flat, while others may sob uncontrollably (Morrison, 2014). Others may even deny subjective feelings of sadness but instead report a debilitating loss of interest in their hobbies (Sadock et al., 2015). Often, patients struggle to recognize or accurately describe their symptoms. They may report vague feelings of unhappiness and hopelessness (Morrison, 2014).

The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode are as follows (APA, 2013):

  • Five or more of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. Symptoms that are contributable to another medical condition should not be included.
  • Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report or observation made by others
  • Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day as indicated by either subjective account or observations
  • Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain, or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day
  • Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day
  • Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
  • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt nearly every day
  • Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day
  • Recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide


The DSM-5 includes ten different specifiers that clinicians can append to the bipolar diagnosis to include more information about the current or most recent mood episode (APA, 2013). The ten specifiers and their definitions are included below.

  • Anxious distress: Used to describe the most recent mood episode if it can be characterized by feeling keyed up, tense, restless, difficulty concentrating due to worry, fear of impending doom, and feeling like the individual might lose control of him or herself.
  • Mixed features: If the most recent mood episode was either manic or hypomanic, this specifier is used to describe prominent dysphoria, depressed mood, tearfulness, fatigue, loss of energy, excessive guilt, feelings of worthlessness, suicidal ideation, psychomotor retardation, and anhedonia. Suppose the most recent mood episode was major depression. In that case, this specifier is used to describe an elevated, expansive mood, grandiosity, pressured speech, flight of ideas, increased goal-directed activity, and decreased need for sleep.
  • Rapid cycling: A specifier that describes the presence of at least four mood episodes in the last 12 months.
  • Melancholic features: Used to describe a loss of pleasure in activities, lack of reactivity to pleasurable stimuli, depressed mood in the morning, moroseness, profound despondency, early-morning waking, excessive guilt, weight loss, and psychomotor agitation.
  • Atypical features: This specifier can be used to qualify a major depressive episode with predominantly atypical symptoms such as mood reactivity, weight gain, increased appetite, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity.
  • Psychotic features: The presence of delusions or hallucinations during mood episodes.
  • Mood-congruent psychotic features: Psychotic symptoms that mimic the typical themes of a mood episode. For example, mood-congruent psychotic symptoms during a manic episode would include themes of grandiosity, invincibility, and suspiciousness.
  • Mood-incongruent psychotic features: The presence of psychotic symptoms that are unrelated to typical themes related to the current mood episode.
  • Catatonia: Used to describe a manic or depressive episode with prominent catatonic features.
  • Peripartum onset: Used to describe the onset of a mood episode either during pregnancy or within four weeks after delivery.
  • Seasonal pattern: This specifier is used when the patient experiences a regular seasonal pattern of mood episodes.

Bipolar I Disorder

For a patient to be diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, they must meet the criteria for having experienced at least one manic episode. The patient doesn't need to have experienced a major depressive episode. When the diagnosis is made, the current mood episode should be listed and classified as either mild, moderate, or severe. The diagnosis may also include a specifier to provide further information about the patient's current state (Morrison, 2014).

In addition to traditional manic episode symptoms, patients may also report a sharper sense of sight, smell, and hearing. They may dress more flamboyantly, wearing extra makeup or gaudy costumes (Sadock et al., 2015). Gambling, sexual indiscretions, and reckless driving may emerge as well. Some patients will become hostile, delusional, and verbally threatening (Morrison, 2014).


The average age of bipolar I disorders onset is 18 years old. Manic symptoms that begin after 40 should prompt a thorough medical workup to rule out an underlying physical condition such as frontotemporal neurocognitive disorder. The prevalence of bipolar I disorder in the United States is 0.6%. In other countries, the prevalence ranged from 0% to 0.6%. The male to female ratio is 1:1. As many as 90% of those who experience one manic episode will have additional mood episodes (APA, 2013).

Gender & Culture-Related Issues

Very little scientific research exists on cultural differences in the expression of bipolar I disorder. Men are less likely to experience rapid cycling or mixed states. Women are more likely to have comorbid eating disorders and alcohol use disorders (APA, 2013).

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of bipolar I disorder should always include major depressive disorder, other bipolar disorders, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), and personality disorders (APA, 2013).

  • Major depressive disorder: Patients with major depressive disorder may have some symptoms of hypomania or mania, but these symptoms will be transient and for a short time.
  • Bipolar II disorder: Bipolar II disorder can be ruled out if the patient has ever experienced a manic episode.
  • Anxiety disorders: Thoroughly assessing the type of anxiety and triggers for anxiety can help differentiate a bipolar disorder from an anxiety disorder.
  • ADHD: Bipolar disorder is different from ADHD because the symptoms arise in distinct episodes, whereas ADHD symptoms are usually ongoing and persistent.
  • Personality disorders: Many symptoms of bipolar disorder overlap with borderline personality disorder; however, symptoms in bipolar disorder are observable in district mood episodes. Clinicians should never diagnose a personality disorder in a patient experiencing an untreated mood episode for the first time.


Anxiety disorders and substance abuse commonly co-occur with bipolar I disorder. Approximately 75% of individuals suffering from bipolar I disorder are also diagnosed with either panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, or a specific phobia. More than 50% of bipolar disorder also have an alcohol use disorder. Metabolic syndrome and migraines also affect bipolar I disorder more than the general population (APA, 2013).

Case Study #1

Melissa is a 39 y/o female client admitted with multiple traumas following a single-car accident at high speed. Her clothing is expensive in appearance though filthy and disheveled. During the intake interview, she continually shifts position and frequently breaks into laughter despite the seriousness of her injuries and the situation. Her speech is rapid and somewhat rambling. Early laboratory screening fails to show the presence of alcohol, and the use of intoxicant drugs does not appear to be a factor.

On questioning, Melissa reveals that she has not slept more than two hours a night for the past week and currently feels neither fatigue nor need for sleep.

When asked concerning circumstances that led up to her accident, she laughs while tears begin to stream down her face and replies, "Life sucks except when it doesn't. I hate the bumps that bring me low. I want to live fast and burn out while my flame is bright".

Bipolar II Disorder

A diagnosis of bipolar II disorder requires both a current or past hypomanic and major depressive episode (Morrison, 2014). At the time of diagnosis, the clinician should decide which type of an episode the patient is experiencing and whether this episode is mild, moderate, or severe. Individuals with bipolar II disorder usually present to treatment during a major depressive episode. The most common feature of bipolar II disorder is impulsivity, which can sometimes lead to suicide attempts and substance abuse disorders (Sadock et al., 2015). Increased levels of creativity are sometimes noted during hypomanic episodes (Sadock et al., 2015).


Bipolar II disorder emerges in late adolescence and early adulthood. The mean age of onset is 25. The disorder usually begins with a major depressive episode and is not recognized as bipolar II until a hypomanic episode occurs later. Mood episodes that follow a rapid-cycling pattern have a poorer long-term prognosis. The prevalence of bipolar II disorder in the United States is 0.8% compared with 0.3% internationally (APA, 2013).

Gender & Culture-Related Issues

Women are more likely to report hypomania with mixed features that follow a rapid-cycling course than men. About 10-20% of women with bipolar II disorder experience hypomanic symptoms following childbirth, and about 50% of those women go on to develop a postpartum depressive episode (APA, 2013).

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of bipolar II disorder should include major depressive disorder, cyclothymic disorder, psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, ADHD, personality disorders, and bipolar I disorder (Morrison, 2014).

  • Major depressive disorder: Sometimes, major depressive disorder can include short or very short periods of hypomanic symptoms. However, for a diagnosis of bipolar II disorder, the hypomanic symptoms must last longer than four days.
  • Cyclothymic disorder: Bipolar II disorder is different from cyclothymic disorder because it includes a history of one or more major depressive episodes. Cyclothymic disorder, on the other hand, has periods of depressive symptoms, but they do not meet the duration criteria for a major depressive episode.
  • Psychotic disorders: Patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and delusional disorder experience periods of psychosis in the absence of mood symptoms. On the other hand, those with bipolar II disorder may experience psychosis but only during mood disturbances.
  • Anxiety disorder: An anxiety disorder usually involves ongoing and pervasive anxiety, whereas bipolar II disorder follows an episodic pattern of anxiety. Often, patients with bipolar II disorder also have a co-occurring anxiety disorder.
  • ADHD: Similar to anxiety disorders, the symptoms of ADHD (e. g. rapid speech, racing thoughts, distractibility) must be ongoing and persistent throughout the patient's life instead of episodic as in bipolar II disorder.
  • Personality disorders: Mood lability and impulsivity are common in personality disorders and bipolar II disorder; however, these symptoms follow a distinct episodic pattern in bipolar II disorder.
  • Bipolar I disorder: Bipolar II disorder is different from bipolar I disorder in that it does not include a history of manic episodes.


Nearly 60% of individuals with bipolar II disorder have three or more comorbid psychiatric conditions. About 75% of those with bipolar II disorder also have an anxiety disorder, and 37% also have a substance use disorder. Furthermore, 14% of these individuals suffer from an eating disorder at some point in their life, with binge eating disorder being the most common. These co-occurring conditions seem to worsen during the mood episodes associated with bipolar II disorder (APA, 2013).

Cyclothymic Disorder

Cyclothymic disorder is a type of bipolar disorder characterized by hypomanic and depressive episodes that do not meet the full criteria for severity or duration (Morrison, 2014). Furthermore, the cyclothymic symptoms must have been present in the previous two years for at least half the time. The key feature of this disorder is the chronic fluctuating mood episodes with symptom-free intervals lasting less than two months (Morrison, 2014).


The prevalence of the cyclothymic disorder is 0.4% to 1%, and the prevalence in mental health clinics ranges from 3% to 5%. This condition affects males and females equally; however, women are more likely to seek treatment than men. The cyclothymic disorder begins in late adolescence and early adulthood. It tends to have an insidious onset and persistent course. About 15% to 50% of those diagnosed with cyclothymic disorder later develop bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Multiple sclerosis should be ruled out if cyclothymic-like symptoms arise in mid-to-late adulthood (APA, 2013).

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis for cyclothymic disorder should include bipolar disorder due to another medical condition, substance/medication-induced bipolar disorder, bipolar I and II with rapid cycling, and borderline personality disorder (Morrison, 2014).

  • Bipolar disorder due to another medical condition: Using a thorough history, physical examination, and laboratory findings, clinicians should rule out any underlying medical condition that could be causing cyclothymic disorder symptoms.
  • Substance/medication-induced bipolar disorder: Illicit stimulants or prescribed stimulant medications can mimic hypomanic symptoms.
  • Bipolar I and II with rapid cycling: In bipolar I and II disorder with rapid cycling, the full diagnostic criteria for mania, hypomania, and major depressive episodes will be met. In cyclothymic disorder, the symptoms will not meet the severity or duration criteria to be considered full manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episodes.
  • Borderline personality disorder: Borderline personality disorder is characterized by extreme shifts in mood, which might resemble cyclothymic disorder. If the criteria for both disorders are met, both should be diagnosed.


Sleep disorders and substance abuse disorders often co-occur with the cyclothymic disorder (APA, 2013).

Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar Disorder

The DSM-5 includes two bipolar disorder categories for situations where patients do not fit neatly into the other diagnostic categories: other specified bipolar disorder and unspecified bipolar disorder (APA, 2013).

Other specified bipolar disorder describes a patient's condition that does not meet the full criteria for bipolar I, bipolar II, or cyclothymic disorder. However, they are experiencing significant social or occupational impairment. The "other specified" diagnosis must include one of four designations (APA, 2013):

  • Short-duration hypomanic episodes or major depressive episodes
  • Hypomanic episodes with insufficient symptoms and a lifetime history of one or more major depressive episodes
  • A hypomanic episode without a prior major depressive episode
  • Short-duration cyclothymic disorder

Unspecified bipolar disorder refers to a patient who does not meet the full criteria for bipolar I, bipolar II, or cyclothymic disorder. Still, they are experiencing significant social and occupational impairment. The difference between unspecified and other specified is that clinicians do not include one of the four designations listed above. Instead, clinicians do not specify a specific reason why the criteria are not met (APA, 2013).

Differentiating Bipolar Disorder from Another Medical Condition

Physical conditions can create or extend mental health conditions. If nurses and nurse practitioners forget to evaluate for underlying medical conditions, they jeopardize the accuracy of the diagnosis and their patient's health.

Medical conditions that imitate symptoms of bipolar disorder include (Morrison, 2014b):

  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • Brain tumor
  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Cryptococcosis
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Epilepsy
  • Head trauma
  • Huntington's disease
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Pernicious Anemia
  • Syphilis
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Clinicians should pay close attention to signs, symptoms, and historical information to rule out an underlying medical condition. A mental status exam, in addition to diagnostic imaging and laboratory work, can help rule out medical conditions. A physical cause for mental symptoms is more likely if the patient is experiencing their first mood disturbance or if their patient is 40 years or older (Morrison, 2014b).


Those who have bipolar disorder are at an increased risk of committing suicide. Recent literature reveals that 15 percent of bipolar sufferers complete suicide, with between 25 to 50 percent of bipolar disorder clients attempting suicide at least once during this life-long illness (Sadock et al., 2015).

To help put this into perspective, more clients experiencing bipolar symptoms attempt suicide than in any other psychiatric diagnosis, including unipolar depression. On average, 29.2% of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, compared with 15.9% of those with unipolar depression and 4.2% of those with any other psychiatric condition (Sadock et al., 2015).

The emotional roller coaster of bipolar disorder places clients at a heightened risk for suicide not only during depressed episodes but also during manic swings when the executive decision-making process and the ability to make a good judgment is impaired. While suicide is a major risk for all bipolar clients, certain factors tend to affect the potential for suicidal thoughts or acts. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease a patient's risk of suicide; however, the following factors increase the risk of suicide or self-injurious behavior (Sadock et al., 2015):

  • Personal or family history of suicidal behavior;
  • Severity and number of depressive episodes;
  • Alcohol or substance dependency;
  • Degree of pessimism;
  • Level of impulsivity or aggression; and,
  • Younger age of symptom onset.

Case Study #2

Geraldo is a 29 y/o Hispanic male admitted after being found unconscious in a parked car outside of his ex-spouse's apartment complex. Empty prescription medication containers were found in the passenger seat next to him by the deputy sheriff, who had been called to investigate a suspicious vehicle.

Medications involved are:

  • Paroxetine an SSRI antidepressant
  • Methylphenidate hydrochloride is a mild CNS stimulant
  • Modafinil is a medication used to combat sleep disorder

Also found with Geraldo was a small spiral-bound notebook of the type commonly issued during counseling for journaling thoughts and feelings. The handwriting on the last few pages of the notebook is difficult to decipher, yet it mentions the loss of friends, spouse, and job due to recurrent bouts of deep depression. No suicide note is present.

Geraldo's former wife reports that she has been without contact with him for several months; however, she recently heard from former friends that he was without a job or a place to live. She reports Geraldo has a longstanding history of "laziness," where he would just lay around the house without bathing or even talking to her, and that he put very little effort into relationships or into maintaining employment.

Geraldo's former wife also reports that his underlying inattentiveness was interrupted by occasional periods of high energy that lasted a few weeks at a time but which occurred infrequently. She further reports that she had pressed Geraldo to seek treatment for depression after losing several jobs. However, even after treatment, nothing seemed to change, so she had decided that the lack of interest he showed in their relationship and in seeking work must be a choice. She adds that someday he will wake up, make a decision, and grow out of it.


Acute treatment of bipolar disorders focuses on which phase of the disease the client is currently experiencing and the severity of symptoms experienced (Gabbard, 2014). Clients in an acute manic episode may display poor judgment that they pose a serious risk to themselves and even those around them. Therefore, they require the safety provided by inpatient treatment (Gabbard, 2014).

Whenever suicidal behaviors are present, inpatient treatment is required. Severe depression also warrants inpatient treatment, while moderate depression or behaviors without risk of injury to the client or others around them may be handled in day treatment clinics or outpatient settings (Yatham et al., 2018).

Importantly, in January 2020, organizations worldwide released an update to the treatment of bipolar disorder: valproate should not be used in women of childbearing potential unless all other options have been exhausted and a pregnancy prevention program is in place. The recommendations came from evidence demonstrating that valproate, when taken during pregnancy, results in malformations in 11% of babies and developmental disorders in 30-40% of children after birth (Irelli et al., 2019).

Mania and Hypomania Episode Treatment

Clients in the grip of a manic episode must be assessed for risk of suicide, risk of violence or harm to others, and for their level of ability to adhere to treatment. Any antidepressants currently being taken should be stopped. The use of alcohol or other substances of abuse should be evaluated and treated; this includes addressing how much caffeine and nicotine are being used to support or maintain the feelings of mania.

Medication used to shift the client's biochemistry back towards the state of remission in mania or hypomania include:

  • Mood stabilizers such as Lithium carbonate, valproate, and carbamazepine. The choice of which mood stabilizer is best to use should be based on previous experience by the client and side effect profiles, as each of these agents is considered equally effective in the treatment of acute mania.
  • Antipsychotics may be used either alone or in combination with mood stabilizers to treat acute mania or hypomania. Quetiapine is favored, but it is unacceptable. Risperidone is the next choice. Olanzapine is not recommended as a first-line treatment due to its side effects but may be used as a second-line if other options are exhausted.
  • Benzodiazepines may be helpful as adjunctive therapy in addition to mood stabilizer medications (Yatham et al., 2018).

Other treatments found particularly useful in acute mania or hypomania are:

  • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT). ECT remains a reliable and effective treatment for severe manic and severe depressive episodes. Treatment with ECT followed by maintenance lithium therapy has shown greater benefit than lithium alone for refractory mania (Gabbard, 2014).

Depressive Episode Treatment

Depressive episodes occur more frequently and tend to last longer than manic shifts. The treatment for bipolar depression differs from unipolar depression as mixed symptomatology, and the underlying cycling tendency of brain biochemistry plays an elusive role in treatment (Gabbard, 2014).

Medications used for bipolar depression include (Yatham et al., 2018):

  • Mood stabilizers, especially lithium, have shown a better effect on symptoms of bipolar depression than antidepressants used by themselves.
  • Anticonvulsants, especially lamotrigine, have demonstrated an ability to increase the effectiveness of lithium when used in combination with lithium.
  • Antidepressants may be used judiciously in bipolar depression; however, monotherapy with antidepressants alone is discouraged as there are concerns that use may "push" the client into an episode of mania.
  • Antipsychotic medications have shown benefits for bipolar depression and mania and should be considered a treatment option.

Other treatments found particularly useful in acute bipolar depressive episodes include:

  • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT). ECT has been repeatedly demonstrated to be a reasonable treatment alternative in bipolar depressive episodes, especially when suicidal ideation or psychosis symptoms are present. Depression during pregnancy has been treated successfully using ETC (Gabbard, 2014).
  • Omega 3 fatty acids have been shown to have a good effect as adjunctive therapy for use in bipolar and unipolar depression. More large-scale studies need to be conducted in this promising area; however, supplementation should be encouraged given consistently demonstrated benefits and low risk of use. Molecularly distilled, highly concentrated fish oils rich in omega 3 fatty acids are readily available in a non-prescription form (Gabbard, 2014).

Maintenance Therapy for Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorders are life-long illnesses. Maintaining clients in a state of disease remission, close to their euthymic or normal mood level, is an ongoing challenge. In addition to medication, psychotherapy has proven effective in minimizing relapse and maintaining a high level of functioning (Yatham et al., 2018).

Maintenance therapy for clients suffering from bipolar spectrum disorders should consist of regular medication checkups and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy interventions may include (Gabbard, 2014):

  • Either individual counseling or ongoing group therapy to assist with the symptoms not controlled by medication and the frustrations of dealing with a long-term, chronic illness
  • Psychoeducation sessions allow clients to learn new coping skills and adopt better ways to manage the stress created by bipolar symptoms
  • Marital and family therapy to support those who provide the essential day-to-day encouragements necessary for treatment adherence


Bipolar disorders are a life-long ride of hyper-energetic mood highs and deeply depressive lows. Many of those afflicted by this brain disease contemplate, attempt, and succeed in suicide as a means of coping with the intense turmoil bipolar disorder creates in their life. More people have bipolar disorder than are currently diagnosed. The spectrum of illness created by bipolar swings can vary widely yet share the characteristics of significant shifts in mood and ability to function effectively in life. Often bipolar disease goes undiagnosed and untreated. Effective treatment consists of medication, psychotherapy, and ongoing support to minimize the aversive effects of bipolar symptoms while keeping this ever-present disorder in remission.

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Implicit Bias Statement

CEUFast, Inc. is committed to furthering diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI). While reflecting on this course content, CEUFast, Inc. would like you to consider your individual perspective and question your own biases. Remember, implicit bias is a form of bias that impacts our practice as healthcare professionals. Implicit bias occurs when we have automatic prejudices, judgments, and/or a general attitude towards a person or a group of people based on associated stereotypes we have formed over time. These automatic thoughts occur without our conscious knowledge and without our intentional desire to discriminate. The concern with implicit bias is that this can impact our actions and decisions with our workplace leadership, colleagues, and even our patients. While it is our universal goal to treat everyone equally, our implicit biases can influence our interactions, assessments, communication, prioritization, and decision-making concerning patients, which can ultimately adversely impact health outcomes. It is important to keep this in mind in order to intentionally work to self-identify our own risk areas where our implicit biases might influence our behaviors. Together, we can cease perpetuating stereotypes and remind each other to remain mindful to help avoid reacting according to biases that are contrary to our conscious beliefs and values.


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