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Assaultive Behavior and Workplace Violence

3 Contact Hours
This peer reviewed course is applicable for the following professions:
Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner (ARNP), Athletic Trainer (AT/AL), Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA), Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), Licensed Nursing Assistant (LNA), Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVN), Midwife (MW), Nursing Student, Occupational Therapist (OT), Occupational Therapist Assistant (OTA), Physical Therapist (PT), Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA), Registered Nurse (RN), Respiratory Therapist (RT)
This course will be updated or discontinued on or before Sunday, July 10, 2022
BOC
Outcomes

≥90% of participants will work actively to prevent workplace violence in the healthcare setting.

Objectives

After completing this continuing education course, the participant will be able to meet the following objectives:

  1. Recognize the WHO definition of workplace violence.
  2. Define interpersonal violence.
  3. Identify the top two causes of work-related deaths in the US.
  4. Examine a barrier associated with reporting workplace violence as put forth by the ANA.
  5. Identify the nursing specialty known to report the highest prevalence of workplace violence.
CEUFast Inc. did not endorse any product, or receive any commercial support or sponsorship for this course. The Planning Committee and Authors do not have any conflict of interest.

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To earn of certificate of completion you have one of two options:
  1. Take test and pass with a score of at least 80%
  2. Reflect on practice impact by completing self-reflection, self-assessment and course evaluation.
    (NOTE: Some approval agencies and organizations require you to take a test and self reflection is NOT an option.)
Author:    Berthina Coleman (MD, BSN,RN)

Introduction

There is a pervasive cultural mindset that suggests that workplace violence is an acceptable part of the job for healthcare providers, specifically nurses and nurses’ assistants who happen to spend the most amount of time with patients compared with other healthcare professionals. Violence must not be normalized by governing bodies, policymakers, or healthcare workers themselves. In 2015, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation published a report stating that the violence against nurses had reached epidemic levels.1 This report was critical in underscoring the need for policies and legislation to be put in place to protect the frontline healthcare workers as they care for our patient populations, including violent patients.

Definition of Workplace Violence

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines workplace violence as “the intentional use of power, threatened or actual, against another person or a group, in work-related circumstances, that either result in or has a high degree of likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development, or deprivation.2

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) defines workplace violence as violent acts, including physical assaults and threats of assault, directed toward persons at work or on duty.3

Several factors have contributed to the rising incidence of violence in our communities in general and in the healthcare community, in particular, which are outside the scope of this discussion. Nonetheless, healthcare workers are increasingly tasked with caring for patients who have caused or are at risk for causing self-harm or inflicting harm on others.

In 2018, there were 67,792 violence-related deaths in the United States (US).4 Health care workers are even more at risk due to their responsibility to prevent disease and respond to medical emergencies appropriately, even when patients are violent, either self-directed violence or interpersonal violence. Interpersonal violence is defined as the use of physical force to injure others.

In 2017 the total medical costs related to violence was approximately $8.7 billion which was related to emergency visits, hospitalizations, short-term and long-term care needs.5

Clinicians have adopted screening for violent patients to prevent violent acts in the workplace in an attempt to protect both patients and healthcare workers. Unfortunately, the reality today is, workplace violence can occur in any work setting, especially in the clinical setting. Clinicians must anticipate and remain vigilant at all times to effectively manage and cope with aggressive patients as well as those with the potential to become violent.

Frequently, media outlets sensationalize every incidence of violence, and the advent of social media makes reports of violence an ever-present threat seeking to grab our attention. In the long run, this desensitizes us to violent situations that have long-lasting psychosocial consequences on society. More specifically, violence in a clinical setting can have debilitating results affecting not just the patient being violent but the clinical staff as well as other patients. There are financial ramifications which are borne by the perpetrators of violence, the victims of violence as well as the employers of these institutions or clinics were violence occurs.

Epidemiology

According to the National Safety Council (NSC) data, in 2018, there were a total of 900,380 incidents that caused employees to request days off from work, including assault, nonfatal injuries, and illnesses. Of these, 20,790 were related to assault, both fatal and nonfatal assaults. Note that this corresponds to assault, accounting for approximately 2.3% of all incidents involving days away from work.6

Work-related assault ranks second place in work-related deaths after motor-vehicle crashes. Although the number of work-related deaths has decreased in recent years, the number of nonfatal injuries in the workplace continues to increase. In 2018, the number of fatal work-related assaults was 453 compared to 458 in 2017. Whereas the number of nonfatal work-related injuries was 20,790 in 2018, compared to 18,400.7

The National Safety Council (NSC) currently categorizes work-related assaults into different types of events, namely:

  • Threats and verbal assaults
  • Strangulation
  • Rape and sexual assault
  • Shooting
  • Hitting, kicking, beating and shoving
  • Stabbing, cutting, slashing or piercing
  • Bombing and arson

On average, the median days away from work used by individuals who have experienced an assault is five days. This time away from work corresponds to an average of 1 week off from work and may be related to loss of income for the individuals involved given that in the US the average worker gets approximately two weeks of vacation.6

According to the United States Department of Labor Bureau of labor statistics, in 2018, the three private sector industries which had the highest distribution of nonfatal occupational injuries in the private sector were8:

  • Healthcare and social assistance with 544,800 cases
  • Retail trade with 401,100 cases
  • Manufacturing with 395,300 cases

Note that healthcare and social assistance was ranked as the number one industry in the private sector with the highest number of nonfatal occupational injuries.8

The Incidence of Workplace Violence Among Nurses

Of all healthcare professionals, nurses and nurse’s assistants spend the most amount of time with patients. As such, they are the group of healthcare professionals who most frequently experience violence. However, not all nurses experience workplace violence at the same rate since some work settings have been associated with an increased incidence of workplace violence.

A cross-sectional study by Ching-Yao et al., 2015 which sample almost 27,000 nurses, sought to identify the prevalence of workplace violence and noted that 49.6% of the nurses had experienced at least one episode of violence in the past year. Of those, 19.1% had been exposed to physical violence, and 46.3% had experienced non-physical violence. They also looked at the prevalence of violence based on the work setting and noted that prevalence varied greatly based on the work environment. Intensive care unit (ICU) or emergency room nurses reported the highest prevalence. In fact, up to 55.5% of nurses working in the ICU or emergency setting had experienced workplace violence.9

Another interesting finding was the fact that nurses between the ages of 55-65 years had the lowest prevalence of workplace violence (28.3%). Overall, after adjusting for other confounders, they concluded that younger nurses were more at risk of being exposed to violent threats.9

NIOSH Classification of Workplace Violence

Type 1: Criminal Intent

In Type 1 violence, the perpetrator has no legitimate relationship to the business or its employees and is usually committing a crime in conjunction with the violence such as a robbery or shoplifting. For example, a hospice nurse gets robbed while walking to her car from a home visit. Note that in the home health care settings, Type I violence occurs less frequently compared to other types of violence.3

Type 2: Customer or Client

Type 2 violence is the most common type of workplace violence in healthcare settings. Patients are considered clients for this course. Also, the customer or client relationship to includes patient family members, and visitors, and can be referred to as client on worker violence. Typically, this type of workplace violence tends to occur in the emergency department, mental health or psychiatric treatment settings, geriatric facilities, and waiting rooms. However, type 2 workplace violence is not limited to these settings.3

Type 3: Worker-on-Worker

Type 3 violence between coworkers is also known as lateral or horizontal violence. It includes bullying and may be demonstrated as verbal and emotional abuse that is unfair and vindictive. Sometimes perpetrators of horizontal violence seek to humiliate their victims. Occasionally, the punishment they inflict on their victims may be taken too far and has resulted in homicide in some instances. Worker-on-worker violence is often directed at subordinates. Typically, supervisors or superiors inflict horizontal violence on people under their charge. For example, a nurse manager being violent to floor nurses or an attending physician being violent to resident physicians. However, the occurrence of a worker on worker or peer to peer violence is also common in healthcare settings.3

Type 4: Personal Relationships

In Type 4 violence, the perpetrator has a relationship with the healthcare worker outside of work that spills over to the work environment. For example, the boyfriend of a nurse’s aide follows her to work after a fight. Other examples of violence include a husband calling his wife’s job to threaten her or a nurse’s roommate calling her job to not only threaten her but also make threats against her coworkers and potentially her patients. Note that coworkers and patients can become unintended victims of violence directed against a healthcare worker.3

Risk Factors for Workplace Violence

The etiology of workplace violence is multifactorial, with myriad causes contributing to the root cause. These include the workplace setting, the patient’s medical history, including the psychiatric history, the patient’s family history, the employee’s state of mind, workload requirements, and the employee’s training and experience.

According to the guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Healthcare and Social Service Workers published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), risk factors for workplace violence can be divided into two main categories: Patient, client or setting related risk factors and Organizational related risk factors.10

Client, Patient, or Setting Related Risk Factors

  • Working directly with people who have a history of violence, abuse drugs or alcohol, gang members, and relatives of patients or clients
  • Transporting patients and clients
  • Working alone in a facility or patients’ homes
  • Poor environmental design of the workplace that may block employees’ vision or interfere with their escape from a violent incident
  • Poorly lit corridors, rooms, parking lots and other areas
  • Lack of means of emergency communication
  • Prevalence of firearms, knives and other weapons among patients and their families and friends
  • Working in neighborhoods with high crime rates

Organizational Risk Factors

  • Lack of facility policies and staff training for recognizing and managing escalating hostile and assaultive behaviors from patients, clients, visitors, or staff.
  • Working when understaffed—especially during mealtimes and visiting hours.
  • High worker turnover.
  • Inadequate security and mental health personnel on site.
  • Long waits for patients or clients and overcrowded, uncomfortable waiting rooms.
  • Unrestricted movement of the public in clinics and hospitals.
  • Perception that violence is tolerated and victims will not be able to report the incident to police or press charges.

A 2014 study by Sabri et al. examined whether different racial or ethnic groups differed in their vulnerability to workplace violence. It also examined the ability to utilize the resources available in the workplace to prevent and manage workplace violence. They noted that childhood physical abuse played a role in significantly increasing the risk of workplace violence amongst all races. They also noted that amongst Asians and Whites, intimate partner violence was a significant factor in increasing the incidence of experiencing workplace violence.11

Also, they noted that Blacks and Asians were less knowledgeable about resources within the workplace used in preventing and addressing workplace violence. In conclusion, their study showed a significant difference in resource utilization amongst minority worker groups. This exemplifies the need for mandatory training and education programs designed for new employees and annual training and education programs targeting current employees in efforts to increase awareness of workplace violence in all populations, including minority groups.11

Identifying Violent Attackers

In determining whether or not an employee may become violent, one must identify warning behaviors and assess the threat of violence. To monitor behavior over time, employers must strive to create a culture of safety and open communication where employees can freely report warning behaviors observed without fear of retaliation. Then, the employer must also be committed to taking appropriate interventions.

Certain behaviors have been associated with an increased risk of violence. Most instances of violence are preceded by a threatening behavior to the victim. These threats must be taken seriously and reported to the authorities and supervisors expeditiously as appropriate. Once reported, the threats should not be ignored. They should be investigated and intervened upon as deemed appropriate. Examples of behaviors that are associated with an increased risk of violence include leakage, preparation for an attack, identifying with violent offenders, fixation on a person or subject, or a desire for retaliation.12

Leakage

Leakage is defined as the act of revealing violent intentions to a third party, which may be intentional or unintentional. Note that leakage does not mean the person planning the violence wants to be discovered. Note that the sharing of violent plans can be veiled or specific and sometimes may be shared as a joke, threat, or while boasting. The threats may be shared verbally, through email or posted online. Not all incidents of leakage lead to violent behavior. It must be assessed in the context of other behaviors.12

Preparation for an Attack, Identifying with Violent Attackers or Fixation on a Person or Subject

Preparatory behaviors include acquiring weapons, researching subjects or locations, carrying out practice runs, or stalking potential targets. Identifying behaviors include agreeing or identifying with an agent of violence or prior perpetrators of violence.12

Desire for Retaliation

A desire for retaliation involves a perceived grievance or wrong that can become considered a reason for the perpetrator’s problems, either perceived or real. The perpetrator can then justify violence as a tool to even the score or as a form of payback. Sometimes perpetrators may feel they have no other choice except for the use of violence because they feel cornered.12

Some mental health disorders have specifically been associated with a propensity for violence, such as antisocial personality disorder, which is characterized by a lack of empathy or a conscience. Patients experiencing psychosis and paranoia can experience a sense of persecution, which can significantly impact the way they experience loss and rejection. Triggers that can lead to violent behavior include loss of a relationship, financial stability, or death of a family member or loved one.

Preventing Workplace Violence

It is impossible to address workplace violence prevention without first addressing the challenges associated with identifying workplace violence.

A history of violence should be appropriately documented in the patient’s chart so that healthcare providers are immediately aware they are interacting with a patient who has demonstrated violent behavior in the past. That way, they have an opportunity to implement safety measures as deemed appropriate. A commonsense safety measure that can be easily implemented to prevent being assaulted is maintaining a safe distance from a potential aggressor, especially since violence can be perceived as more distressful when it occurs in unexpected situations.

A 2016 publication by Huang and Glenn states that all patients should be screened for violence as part of the emergency department triage process. Also, they recommend providing support for nurses who have experienced workplace violence to help them cope with the aftermath of experiencing physical violence in the workplace.13

There are several challenges involved in measuring aggression in the workplace, including the reluctance by victims to report the incident, use of indirect measures to report the incidents. Huang and Glenn proposed using a handheld counter as a tool to measure aggression exposure accurately.13

Finally, the lack of information on how to cope and recover from experiencing workplace violence can be a deterrent for nurses who may believe that reporting the violence is futile and is likely to be ignored by the supervisory staff.13

Occupational Safety and Health Administration Recommendations for Preventing Workplace Violence

In 2016, OSHA published updated guidelines for preventing workplace violence for healthcare and social service workers. OSHA acknowledges that healthcare and social service workers face significant risks of job-related violence, thus validating the need for guidelines that employers can use to provide a safe working environment.10

OSHA acknowledges that different workplace settings pose different types of hazards to the employees. Consequently, they identified five different workplace settings to establish workplace safety guidelines10:

  • Residential treatment settings such as nursing homes or long-term care facilities
  • Hospital settings or large institutional medical facilities
  • Community care settings including group homes
  • Fieldwork settings including home healthcare workers or social workers
  • Non-residential treatment service settings, such as neighborhood clinics

Healthcare and social service workers who are protected by these guidelines include home healthcare workers, technicians, therapists, nurses’ aides, registered nurses, OSHA social workers, physicians, emergency care personnel, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other staff. They may be exposed to clients with a history of violence. When integrating these guidelines into clinical practice, it is important to listen to the workers and incorporate any good ideas and address any concerns they may have.10

OSHA recommends reviewing records to identify patterns of assault and reviewing near misses to identify things that helped prevent the violent event.

Most of the questionnaire respondents who self-reported a violent event in the past year had not documented an incident in the electronic system (88%). However, more than 45% had reported violence informally, for example, to their coworkers and supervisors. They noted that employees who got injured or lost time from work were more likely to report a violent event formally. If hospitals got a better understanding of the magnitude of underreporting and the factors that cause health care workers to underreport, they would be more knowledgeable about where to focus on violence education and prevention resources.

In its guidelines for preventing workplace violence for healthcare and social services workers, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration organization recommends all hospitals perform a program evaluation that focuses on reviewing their safety and security measures.

OSHA goes on to spell out the elements of an effective evaluation system which include10:

  • Establishing a uniform violence reporting system and regular review of reports
  • Reviewing reports and minutes from staff meetings on safety and security issues
  • Analyzing trends and rates in illnesses, injuries or fatalities caused by violence relative to initial or “baseline” rates
  • Measuring improvement based on lowering the frequency and severity of workplace violence
  • Proper patient confidentiality must be maintained
  • Keeping up-to-date records of administrative and work practice changes to prevent workplace violence to evaluate how well they work
  • Surveying workers before and after making job or worksite changes or installing security measures or new systems to determine their effectiveness
  • Tracking recommendations through to completion
  • Keeping abreast of new strategies available to prevent and respond to violence in the healthcare and social service fields as they develop
  • Surveying workers periodically to learn if they experience hostile situations in performing their jobs
  • Complying with OSHA and state requirements for recording and reporting injuries, illnesses, and fatalities
  • Requesting periodic law enforcement or outside consultant review of the worksite for recommendations on improving worker safety

American Nurses Association (ANA) Position on Workplace Violence

In 2015, the American Nurses Association, the professional organization which represents the 3.6 million registered nurses, issued a position statement with which advocates for a “zero tolerance” policy concerning violence against nurses in the workplace.14

Specific recommendations put forth by the ANA include:

  • Establishing a shared and sustained commitment by nurses and their employers to a safe and trustworthy environment that promotes respect and dignity
  • Encouraging employees to report incidents of violence, and never blaming employees for violence perpetrated by non-employees
  • Encouraging RNs to participate in educational programs, learn organizational policies and procedures, and use “situational awareness” to anticipate the potential for violence
  • Developing a comprehensive violence prevention program aligned with federal health and safety guidelines, with RNs’ input
  • Employers must provide a mechanism for RNs to seek support when feeling threatened
  • Employers also have a responsibility to inform employees about available strategies for conflict resolution and respectful communication
  • Employers are urged to offer education sessions on incivility and bullying, including prevention strategies

In 2019, the ANA convened a special #EndNurseAbuse panel, which developed a policy on the barriers to reporting workplace violence. Examples of barriers to reporting identified by the panel include the following15:

  • A health care culture that considers workplace violence part of the job
  • A perception that violent incidents are routine. A lack of agreement on definitions of violence; for example, does it include verbal threats
  • Fear of being accused of inadequate performance or of being blamed for the incident and fear of retaliation by the offender and or employer
  • Lack of awareness of the reporting system
  • A belief that reporting will not change the current systems or decrease the potential for future incidents of violence
  • A belief that the incident was not serious enough to report
  • A practice of not reporting unintentional violence, e.g., incidents involving Alzheimer’s patients
  • Lack of manager and employer support
  • Lack of training related to reporting and managing workplace violence
  • Fear of reporting supervisory workplace violence
  • These barriers together create significant disincentives for RNs to report incidents of workplace violence

Removing these barriers requires a multifaceted strategy that requires the input of both nurses and their employers.

How to Diffuse Tense Situations Using Verbal De-escalation Techniques

When dealing with agitated patients, clinicians must learn how to assess quickly when a patient is amenable to verbal calming techniques, and when they realize that they are not working, they must quickly excuse themselves and get help. Often when we approach a patient, one has no idea how the interaction will play out. However, the American Association for emergency psychiatry has provided ten key elements for verbal de-escalation.16

  • Respect personal space – Maintain a distance of two arm's lengths and provide space for an easy exit for either party.
  • Do not be provocative – Keep your hands relaxed, maintain a non-confrontational body posture, and do not stare at the patient.
  • Establish verbal contact – The first person to contact the patient should be the leader.
  • Use concise, simple language – Elaborate and technical terms are hard for an impaired person to understand.
  • Identify feelings and desires – "What are you hoping for?"
  • Listen closely to what the patient is saying – After listening, restate what the patient said to improve mutual understanding.
  • Agree or agree to disagree
    • Agree with clear specific truths
    • Agree in general: "Yes, everyone should be treated respectfully
    • Agree with minority situations: "There are others who would feel like you."
  • Lay down the law and set clear limits – Inform the patient that violence or abuse cannot be tolerated.
  • Offer choices and optimism – Patients feel empowered if they have some choice in matters.
  • Debrief the patient and staff.

The philosophy of yes encourages the clinician to respond to the patient affirmatively. Examples of initial clinician responses using this approach might include: “Yes, but first we should do”, “Okay, we will as soon as” or “I truly understand what you want to be done, but in my experience, it is more effective to do it another way.”

It is important to know that physical restraints can be used when unable to calm a combative patient using other techniques. When restrained, a patient must be carefully and frequently monitored. If rapid tranquilization is required, typical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines can be utilized.

What Not To Do

There are certain things clinicians must never do, and they include: arguing, being condescending, commanding the patient. Also, interestingly, a threat to call security is often an invitation to aggression. Other potential mistakes include criticizing or interrupting the patient, responding defensively or taking the patient's insults personally, and not clarifying what the patient meant before responding. Finally, never lie to a patient, especially about wait times.

Do not take any threats lightly. Respond to all threats seriously and report them as appropriate. Downplaying violent behavior places all the staff at increased risk.

Putting our Knowledge to Practice

Clinical Scenario 1

You are the nurse in a busy emergency room in a large urban city. You are the triage nurse, and you are assessing patients deciding who should be seen first. You are in the process of triaging a 28-week pregnant woman presenting with frank vaginal bleeding when an inebriated patient with a 3 inch cut on his hands he sustained from a bar fight approaches you in the waiting room. He is demanding to be seen first since he arrived before the pregnant patient. He does not understand why he should have to wait just because she is pregnant.

Discussion

First, acknowledge him, then ask to be excused while you get a coworker’s attention to assist you in promptly processing the pregnant patient. The pregnant patient must be processed expeditiously, given that her symptoms could potentially be life-threatening. Allow your coworker to take over caring for the pregnant patient since you established the first contact with the agitated patient. Be sure that you come back as soon as possible to assess whether or not the patient is a threat and risk of him becoming violent. Be mindful you should be gleaning from your interaction with the patient within a couple of minutes whether or not he is amenable to de-escalation using verbal techniques. If he is, calmly give him a reasonable expectation about when he should expect to be admitted. If he is not amenable to de-escalation, calmly excuse yourself and get security. Regardless of his reaction, you should not turn your back on the patient, always maintain a safe exit, and set clear limits. Be sure to brief other staff members about your interactions with the patient.

Clinical Scenario 2

You are a nurse working on the pediatric floor where you are taking care of a 6-year-old girl who sustained burn injuries a few days ago. The police visited the floor that morning and informed the nursing staff that her father was a person of interest in their investigation, but they are having some trouble locating him. The mother reports that she is estranged from her husband and has been so for the past four days. Now the father arrives on the floor appears inebriated demanding to see his daughter stating he would never try to hurt her knowingly.

Discussion

Calmly excuse yourself, immediately call security and notify the police as soon as possible. Do not allow him in to see his daughter until assured it is safe to do so by law enforcement. Remain calm; be sure to notify other staff members. Do not turn you back on the agitated parent and keep a safe distance allowing space for an exit. Do not try to detain him if he tries to leave on his own, just be sure to report his route of exit to security as well as to the police. Do not disclose that he is wanted by the police as this could incite a violent reaction.

Summary

The sequelae of physical violence are not just limited to psychological stress. It can cause significant distress with those affected manifesting signs and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder such as flashbacks, avoidance of similar patients or situations.

Given that the risk factors contributing to workplace violence are multifactorial, a solution to preventing workplace must be multifaceted with input from both the employees and managerial staff. Organizations like OSHA, the ANA, and NIOSH provide policy and evidenced-based reports which can be used as a building block for healthcare workers as they work cohesively, together with their managers, to write effective strategies applicable to their workplace setting.

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References

  1. Rober Wood Jonson Foundation. Nurses Face Epidemic Levels of Violence at Work. July 2015. Published July 16, 2015. Accessed. Visit Source.
  2. World Health Organization WHO. Visit Source.
  3. NIOSH. Violence in the workplace: Current Intelligence Bulletin 57. CDC website. Published July 1996. Updated June 6, 2014. Visit Source.
  4. CDC. Fatal Injury Data. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated March 30, 2020. Visit Source.
  5. Grossman DC, Choucair B. Violence And The US Health Care Sector: Burden And Response. Health Affairs. 2019;38(10):1638-1645. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2019.00642.
  6. National Safety Council NSC. Assault at Work.Visit Source.
  7. National Safety Council NSC. Assault at Work - Data Details. Injury Facts. Published 2019. Visit Source.
  8. 2018 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, Charts Package. Published November 2019. Visit Source.
  9. Workplace violence against nurses – Prevalence and association with hospital organizational characteristics and health-promotion efforts: Cross-sectional study Ching-Yao Wei, Shu-Ti Chiou, Li-Yin Chien, Nicole Huang. DOI. Visit Source.
  10. OSHA. Guidelines for preventing workplace violence for healthcare and social service workers. Published 2016. Visit Source.
  11. Sabri B, Vil NMS, Campbell JC, Fitzgerald S, Kub J, Agnew J. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Factors Related to Workplace Violence Victimization. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2014;37(2):180-196. doi:10.1177/0193945914527177.
  12. Huston M, Larsen RC, LaDou J, Harrison RJ. Occupational Mental Health & Workplace Violence. In: CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Occupational & Environmental Medicine. Vol 5e. McGraw-Hill; 2013.
  13. Huang J, Glenn LL. Measurement of Workplace Violence Reporting. Workplace Health & Safety. 2016;64(2):44-45. doi:10.1177/2165079915607500.
  14. ANA. Violence, Incivility, & Bullying. Visit Source.
  15. American Nurses Association ANA. Reporting Incidents of Workplace Violence. Published 2019. Visit Source.
  16. Richmond J, Berlin J, Fishkind A, et al. Verbal De-escalation of the Agitated Patient: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA De-escalation Workgroup. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2012;13(1):17-25. doi:10.5811/westjem.2011.9.6864

Additional Resources

  1. Brous E. Workplace Violence. AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 2018;118(10):51-55. doi:10.1097/01.naj.0000546381.04422.55.
  2. Sate of California Department of Industrial Relations. Cal/OSHA Guidelines for Workplace Security - Types of workplace violence events. Updated: March 30, 1995. Visit Source.